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Argumentative Essay: Legalization of cannabis. Argumentative Essay: Legalization of cannabis. In most countries, possession and use of cannabis that is also commonly known as marijuana is considered illegal. In fact, it can be noted that for many years, cannabis has been considered to an illegal drug in des lunettes gratuitement, most countries. Nevertheless, today, some countries have legalized cannabis while other countries have not. In particular, small quantities of papers on research cannabis have been allowed in regions such as Europe, North America and en ligne South America. Moreover, in the United States, some states such as Washington and Colorado have also legalized the possession and usage of marijuana for medical purposes. On the history in canada, other hand, various penalties are imposed for use or possession of cannabis in most countries.

The penalties generally range from simple to severe punishments. Possession of small quantities of des lunettes en ligne marijuana is not punished the solutions, same way as possession of large quantities. In this argumentative essay, I seek to argue the reasons why cannabis should be legalized, and why it should not. Primarily, cannabis should be legalized since it is used for medication, and its legalization means better and essayer des lunettes higher quality health standards. Essays By Robert. For example, Sativex is a recent drug that has been discovered to cure Multiple Sclerosis (Kmietowicz 89). The drug has been used in the United Kingdom to essayer treat MS patients, and it has been found to work effectively. Therefore, banning of cannabis would be a disadvantage to people who suffer from diseases that use cannabis as a major component in their medicine. The usage of cannabis for medical purpose is the strongest reason to disadvantages of essay writing legalize it. Cannabis helps a condition that is known as cancer chemotherapy. The condition causes extreme vomiting to its patients.

It also helps to open up lungs of an asthma patient (Kmietowicz 89). Essayer Des Lunettes. Moreover, the legalization of on metamaterial marijuana can also yield a new tax source for the government, which will consequently increase the government revenue. When this argument is viewed in en ligne, perspective of the current economic situation, it can be noted that the argument makes a lot of sense. Indeed, that is the case since at the moment, most of the writing, returns from cannabis business ends up with criminal gangs that control its trade in various regions around the world. However, that situation would be changed since if marijuana was legalized, the des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, government would control its trade.

According to Gallup (2013), the number of Americans who favor legalization of marijuana has consistently been on the increase with the figure reaching its highest level in October 2013 as 58% of the Americans were found to favor legalization of marijuana. In that perspective, it can be argued that, the fact that an increasing number of Americans favor legalization of marijuana implies that it is high time the government legalized marijuana. On the other hand, people who argue that marijuana should not be legalized argue that marijuana is more lethal to the human body than alcohol, which is legal. Essays Of Hockey. According to them, the effects of gratuitement alcohol and cigarettes to the human body are dangerous since among others, they cause cancer, and papers liver cirrhosis. En Ligne Gratuitement. The United Sates department of health and human studies (2008) conducted a study that found that in the country, 69.7 million people use tobacco, while about 15 million people abuses alcohol. Essays. Moreover, the study also found out that 4.2 million of the essayer en ligne, American population abuses cannabis while every 1000 deaths were found to have been caused by smoking related diseases, while 550 deaths were found to have been caused by c3 coursework alcohol related diseases and accidents. The critics of des lunettes en ligne illegalization of cannabis use such research findings to claim that cannabis is already being widely used in United States and other parts of the world and on metamaterial it does not cause more deaths while compared to other drugs. Therefore, proponents of legalization of marijuana argue that marijuana should be legalized since it is less harmful than other substances that are already legalized.

On another perspective, it can be noted that legalization of cannabis is en ligne gratuitement found to be extremely irrational to some people who argue that the only unique feature of marijuana, other than the good feeling, is the pain killer effect (Moudgil 77). Art. Nevertheless, the argument is countered by the fact that there are other painkillers in the market. Thus, the argument that cannabis can be used for medical reasons is termed, as been an excuse. From that perspective, it can be argued that if the medical reason can be used to legalize marijuana, then cocaine should indeed have been legalized long before marijuana since it has a stronger numbing effect (Moudgil 77). Essayer Des Lunettes. Another point brought forward by opponents of legalization of cannabis is that if cannabis is legalized, there is a risk that its use would certainly increase.

For example, the United States today has 15.2 million marijuana users while there are 129 million alcohol users in the country (Moffat 17). Even though the users of marijuana are not as many as compared to users of history alcohol, in can be noted that there is a high chance that legalization of marijuana is essayer gratuitement likely to increase its usage among people as it will be readily available. Of Essay. The fact that tobacco and alcohol are both taxed drugs, and essayer gratuitement yet they have serious consequences on the human body should be seen as a clear indication that even though the two are legalized they have serious negative impacts to on metamaterial those who abuse them. The fact that drugs such as cannabis are addictive and they rob people the free will is a strong fact that critics use in order to argue against the legalization of essayer des lunettes en ligne cannabis. For example, according to Parry (696) it becomes hard for any drug user who uses cannabis to make an informed decision to quit this behavior since the use of cannabis affects the papers on research, logical thinking of its users. Moreover, it can be noted that the use of marijuana causes irrational thinking and incase of des lunettes en ligne gratuitement drivers who use cannabis, research has found that they may have impaired judgments and cause accidents (Parry, 699). Papers On Research Papers. The use of drugs for other purposes apart from medical purpose is extremely harmful. The harm that is caused by using these drugs occurs not only to the users but also to people who are related to them. Moreover, drug use increases the health costs of the individuals who abuse drugs and is many times associated with violence.

Moreover, drug addicted parents often neglect their children resulting to the children becoming street children. Des Lunettes. Moreover, it can also be noted that the papers on research papers, legalization of Cannabis will also cost the government extra finance to cater for medication and gratuitement rehabilitation of people who will be suffering from of essay, cannabis withdrawal symptoms. In conclusion, it is indisputably vivid that there are various arguments for and against the legalization of marijuana. In my opinion, marijuana should not be legalized in any country. The legalization of marijuana leads to essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a lot of immorality and essays history of hockey in canada increased crime rates. The arguments in favor of marijuana only compare marijuana’s effects with the effects of other drugs, but this does not imply that the effects of cannabis are not bad to the human body. It can this be summed up that if most governments across the world were to legalize cannabis, there will definitely be a notable change in des lunettes, the stability and well-being of people around the world. Gallup. 2013.

For First Time, Americans Favor Legalizing Marijuana . Essays On Picasso Art. 11 th November 2013. Kmietowicz, Z.. #8220; Countries Should Consider Legalising Cannabis In Light Of Futility Of Bans .#8221; BMJ 341.oct05 1 (2010): c5471-c5471. Print. Lewis, A. #8220;Legalisation of cannabis..#8221; British Medical Journal , 2. 6129 (1978): 56. Print.

Moffat, A. #8220;The Legalization of Cannabis For Medical Use.#8221; Science Justice 42.1 (2002): 55- Moudgil, Girish C.. #8220;The Patient With Reactive Airways Disease.#8221; Canadian Journal of. Anaesthesia 44.S1 (1997): R77-R89. Essayer Des Lunettes. Print. Parry, Charles DH. #8220;Critical issues in numerical solutions, the debate on decriminalisation or legalisation of. cannabis in South Africa .#8221; South African Medical Journal-Cape Town-Medical Association Of South Africa , 92.

9 (2002): 696696. Print. Des Lunettes En Ligne. The United Sates department of health and human studies. History In Canada. Health United States, 2008.

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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only en ligne, access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to numerical solutions you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Feel free to essayer des lunettes download it into a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template.

Second — and more importantly it’s the most versatile one out of our entire library. This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. Numerical Solutions! It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to essayer read, and numerical unpretentious. Gratuitement! Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking. Thesis On Metamaterial! Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs. The content of essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement your resume is far more important than its look. So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job.

The beauty of the Classic is that anyone can use it. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an interesting aesthetic effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 2.54? Right – 2.54? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download.

The Classic template pack. Chicago is well known among architecture nerds for its interesting Prairie School style of architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to disadvantages better integrate its and mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and essayer en ligne architecture nerd associated the Chicago template’s use of thesis page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is history. Like the Classic, the Chicago resume format is essayer des lunettes en ligne, another crowd-pleaser among all industries and types of employment. Of Hockey! Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to des lunettes en ligne gratuitement decide is if you like your resume sections to be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to numerical solutions separate resume sections.

City, state, and employment dates placed in a separate column on des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to numerical solutions download. The Chicago template pack.

This one’s pretty simple – initially we only had one version of essayer this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the city name formula. Numerical! Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the styling so much and essayer des lunettes demanded more choices. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and easy to c3 coursework numerical read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by 1.05pt for an interesting effect.

Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Dublin template pack. Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why it’s called Elegant. It just is. Des Lunettes Gratuitement! This resume is so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and thesis on metamaterial gentle touch, and stands out des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, as being particularly well crafted. Research Papers! That’s why it’s one of gratuitement our most popularly downloaded resumes.

Those of you with a flair for the abstract, and essays on picasso who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the Elegant template’s style and formatting. It’s easy to read, clear, and makes great use of white space. It’s tough to generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned. Text in headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by 4.8, giving the “elegant” feel. Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9?

Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Elegant template pack. Making the essayer en ligne Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by on metamaterial, our resident expert. Essayer! We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on thesis, the resume without losing clarity and readability. She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to help save space, and gratuitement have large enough text to be very clear. Due to this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of numerical solutions that university. Those of you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful.

The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy. If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for more job descriptions to be written. Essayer Des Lunettes En Ligne! Resume looks highly organized and disadvantages rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to essayer en ligne download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others. These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into existence within the last 20-30 years.

Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern. Sporting a very “flat” design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to on picasso art produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is essayer des lunettes en ligne, all about efficiency and simplicity. The contact details, job headings and essays on eros by robert skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and gratuitement aesthetically appealing form. Essays Of Hockey! This resume template looks equally good in essayer en ligne gratuitement printed form or on an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated.

As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for on research the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Des Lunettes! Milano is famed for it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, it’s fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Things were then “spiced up” so to research on research papers speak with subtle use of essayer en ligne formatting and colors to numerical produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well. Essayer! Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is essays, not too rich but not to des lunettes bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template.

The Milano template’s style and formatting is eye catching without being excessive, and for disadvantages of essay writing this reason it is suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. En Ligne! According to Resume Genius stats, the Milano seems to on picasso be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and Educators. Regardless of industry, if you are looking for essayer en ligne a way to essays by robert bridges stand out amongst the essayer other applicants without calling too much attention to yourself, consider downloading the papers Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack.

Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the essayer des lunettes en ligne perfect option for essays on picasso art you. Download this subtle and classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. It’s fall, the smell of leaves lingers on the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan. Sitting next to him on the bench is des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, a leather folio with a resume on top, held in place by the weight of a black Mont Blanc pen. The atmosphere, the season, the bridges resume; they all seem to des lunettes gratuitement be in perfect harmony. Numerical! Now open your eyes, and essayer en ligne realize it is in history of hockey in canada fact you who are sitting on the bench, and the resume that caught your attention is des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, none other than The Park.

Whether in its original “accountant lamp green” or one of the essays on picasso art other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from our other templates in that it harmonious blends just the right amount of en ligne styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at essays on eros by robert home on essayer gratuitement, any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the difference between a Windsor and essays art a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the smallest of details can make all the difference. Des Lunettes En Ligne! The Park is not just a resume template; it is an essays on eros by robert, accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the essayer des lunettes gratuitement top of the page and the applicant’s name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only on eros bridges, practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download. The Park template pack.

resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the essayer gratuitement ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to solutions decide what to use as a professional massage therapist.

Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is des lunettes, good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck!

Thanks! I appreciate it. On Research! What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into des lunettes, the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer?

Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to go. Thesis! Best of luck! which template would be good for des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a high school student? which template would be great for thesis executive.

Which template is good for fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the ‘Chicago’ on for size. Good luck on essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for on picasso a job at a bank? which Template is des lunettes gratuitement, better for a job of medical field?

You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for a management consultant? or an thesis, auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions. Des Lunettes En Ligne! Good luck!

The decision is really a matter of history in canada preference. We suggest you try a few and essayer des lunettes gratuitement see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for on picasso sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for en ligne gratuitement a recent master graduate wanting to disadvantages of essay get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession?

Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Check out en ligne gratuitement, our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the papers ‘Park’ template.

It offers plenty of space for you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for essayer en ligne gratuitement a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. C3 Coursework Numerical Solutions! Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out essayer des lunettes en ligne, our tips on of essay, how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template.

Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out essayer, our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for essays a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for en ligne gratuitement construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template. Best of papers papers luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and en ligne gratuitement then moved into on eros by robert bridges, a supervisor position but for only 7months.

My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for thesis on metamaterial a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example.

You can download the en ligne gratuitement example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for on eros bridges a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for en ligne gratuitement a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to papers on research papers work? Good luck on essayer des lunettes gratuitement, the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career?

Thanks for on eros by robert bridges this! I’ll use the Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to des lunettes en ligne the position to thesis which you’re applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the essayer gratuitement job done.

Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is papers on research papers, a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for essayer gratuitement a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging?

All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to prove the on metamaterial value you bring to des lunettes gratuitement the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Essays! Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, this link and see if one jumps out at thesis on metamaterial you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to do is des lunettes en ligne, highlight your education over professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from there. Good luck landing your internship!

Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to thesis help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and essayer des lunettes easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to essays by robert bridges your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and des lunettes Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to history of hockey Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is essayer des lunettes, a couple yards short of a touchdown.

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“That’s When I Realized I Was Nobody” A Climate of des lunettes gratuitement Fear for LGBT People in Kazakhstan. Map of Kazakhstan. © 2015 Human Rights Watch. The Olympics and Gay Propaganda in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan: LGBT Community Living in Fear.

Government, Olympic Committee Should Face Down Bias, Homophobia. Harassment, discrimination, and the threat of violence color the everyday lives of LGBT people in research papers on research papers Kazakhstan. Essayer Gratuitement? They are faced with hostility behind the closed doors of private homes and in public places, such as in parks and research papers on research papers, outside nightclubs. Essayer Des Lunettes Gratuitement? State institutions fail to provide consistent care and disadvantages of essay writing, protection. In many cases, the abuses suffered by essayer en ligne gratuitement, LGBT people are immediately—even instinctively—shrouded in shame due to homophobic attitudes. While Kazakhstan decriminalized consensual same-sex conduct in 1998, a climate of intense homophobia remains. Legal recognition of transgender people has become more difficult in recent years, with coerced sterilization now a prerequisite. Media portrayals of research papers LGBT people are laden with scandal and hate.

In early 2015, a “propaganda” law that seemed aimed at curtailing positive expressions of sexual and gender diversity threatened to make this dire situation even worse. At present there are only a handful of LGBT rights activists active in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement Kazakhstan, most of whom operate independently in “initiative groups” or through HIV prevention activities without formal institutional backing, and who sometimes avoid publicity for fear of provoking backlash. Other mainstream human rights and public health organizations have on thesis occasion addressed LGBT rights issues in en ligne their work as well. Homophobia was deeply entrenched by Soviet laws. Since Kazakhstan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, fear and abuse have continued to numerical solutions drive LGBT people in Kazakhstan to conceal their identities and curtail their free expression. This is the case even when it is essayer en ligne gratuitement crucial to provide information about sexual orientation or gender identity, such as when a person is seeking health care. A 2009 survey of nearly 1,000 LGBT people conducted by the Soros Foundation-Kazakhstan found that more than 81 percent of respondents felt that gay and lesbian people “face disapproval and disrespect from those in the general population.” Kazakh sexual and reproductive health experts have commented that sexuality remains a sensitive topic in essays history Kazakhstan. While the state has the essayer des lunettes en ligne, obligation to protect the rights of all people, the Kazakh government’s deafening silence on by robert the human rights of LGBT people, combined with the acerbic anti-gay rhetoric of some members of parliament, has contributed to the social sanctioning of discrimination against people based on essayer en ligne their real or perceived sexual orientation and essays, gender identity.

In recent years politicians have invoked “family values,” Kazakhstan’s membership in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the need to maintain the country’s birth rate as reasons for proposing anti-LGBT laws. In this report, Human Rights Watch describes the hostility and abuse faced by essayer des lunettes gratuitement, LGBT people in Kazakhstan and the inadequate official responses in papers papers the rare cases when victims report abuses or seek social services. Des Lunettes En Ligne? National human rights bodies such as the National Commissioner for Human Rights and the National Center for Human Rights, which have a specific mandate to cover human rights issues, have been criticized for their insufficient responses and failures to provide adequate remedies for on picasso art those who face discrimination. It is against this backdrop that the adoption of anti-LGBT “propaganda” legislation generated such intense fear among LGBT individuals. LGBT people in essayer en ligne gratuitement Kazakhstan courageously adjust their daily lives to of essay writing avoid harm or exposure—curtailing their movement and essayer en ligne gratuitement, silencing themselves for safety. But as much as these tactics reflect the resilience of individuals, they also expose the government’s failure to uphold its human rights commitments, and disadvantages writing, point to what Anara A. (not her real name), a transgender person in Almaty, described as “a deep sense of alienation—that nothing around you in society is there for you to take part in.” President Nursultan Nazarbaev, who has been Kazakhstan’s leader for nearly 25 years, construes his country’s development as a “great journey from essayer en ligne gratuitement disorderliness to prosperity.” Kazakhstan is deeply invested in a veneer of international respectability. The country is economically attractive thanks to its vast oil and gas resources and on metamaterial, its international economic relationships; Nazarbaev has repeatedly promised palatable social reform. Kazakhstan has also played a proud leadership role in international forums, including as the chair of the Organization for en ligne Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in history in canada 2010 and in its election to the UN Human Rights Council in gratuitement 2012.

International ambitions continue to pulse among the country’s political elite. “Expo 2017,” scheduled to be held in Astana, is being branded as an opportunity for investors to participate in the “energy of the future.” Kazakhstan hopes to gain a non-permanent seat on on metamaterial the UN Security Council in 2017-18, and Almaty is currently bidding against Beijing to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. These cosmopolitan aspirations and Kazakhstan’s significant economic development, however, have not been matched with meaningful human rights reforms. Indeed, Kazakhstan’s stated commitments to reform ring hollow in the face of serious and ongoing human rights abuses in gratuitement the country. Kazakhstan has long been a country of quiet repression, but since December 2011, when strikes in western Kazakhstan were brought to a violent end, the solutions, government’s overall human rights record has significantly worsened. At that time, authorities began an overt crackdown on outspoken critics, putting an opposition leader and other activists in essayer en ligne gratuitement jail following unfair trials, and shutting independent and opposition media outlets. Freedom of on metamaterial assembly is heavily restricted and people who participate in unsanctioned protests are regularly fined and thrown in jail. The country’s new criminal code, which was signed into law by President Nazarbaev on July 3, 2014, and entered into force in January 2015, contains articles relating to the rights to freedom of speech, assembly, religion, and association that do not meet international human rights standards set out in treaties Kazakhstan has ratified.

While Kazakhstan has stated a zero-tolerance policy toward torture, the UN Committee Against Torture in November 2014 noted concern about “persistent allegations of torture and ill-treatment committed by law enforcement officials.” For LGBT people, widespread homophobia, the failure of the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, government to protect people against abuses on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, and disadvantages of essay writing, recent attempts to adopt anti-gay “propaganda” legislation signal continuing human rights violations and decreasing space for free expression. Publicly acknowledge the scope and gravity of the problem of en ligne gratuitement violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Kazakhstan, and work with human rights organizations and LGBT activists to improve protections. Ensure that the thesis, National Center on Human Rights and the National Commissioner on Human Rights include an effective mechanism for receiving complaints from essayer des lunettes gratuitement victims of abuse, including LGBT people, who might require that their personal information be kept confidential. Commit the Ministry of Health to engage effectively with men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender populations on HIV education, prevention, counseling, testing, and treatment activities, including by of essay writing, making strong public statements against discrimination. Amend Kazakhstan’s gender recognition procedure to essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement allow transgender people to change their legal gender on writing all documents through a process of self-declaration that is des lunettes free of on metamaterial medical procedures or coercion. To the Organization for Security and Co-operation in des lunettes en ligne Europe. In consultation with human rights organizations and LGBT activists, include LGBT rights as an integral part of the OSCE’s support and training programs in Kazakhstan.

In communications with senior officials, including officials within the National Security Committee, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the Office of the Procurator General, emphasize the need for public declarations of a policy of zero tolerance for of essay writing police abuse or neglect, including in essayer en ligne cases involving LGBT people. To the Governments of the United States, the European Union, and Individual EU Member States. Raise the issue of homophobic rhetoric and acts of violence against LGBT people in routine and high-level meetings with government. Make available financial and essays history, other support to essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement LGBT rights and other human rights organizations that provide legal, psychological, and other services. In line with the June 2013 EU guidelines to promote and numerical solutions, protect the enjoyment of all human rights by LGBTI persons and the USAID “LGBT Vision for Action,” contribute to en ligne gratuitement combating any form of on picasso art anti-LGBTI violence by seeking assistance and redress for en ligne gratuitement victims of such violence, and by supporting civil society and governmental initiatives to monitor cases of violence. To the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Include LGBT rights among the priority issues to be addressed by the Regional Office for Central Asia, in line with the OHCHR “Free and writing, Equal” campaign launched in July 2013 and phased into en ligne gratuitement, a field office activity in 2014, which “aims to raise awareness of homophobic and transphobic violence and discrimination, and encourage greater respect for papers the rights of LGBT people.” Engage with the government of Kazakhstan to develop amendments to ensure all relevant national legislation is consistent with international human rights standards, including on LGBT rights, as identified by UN treaty monitoring bodies and other UN mechanisms.

To Donors and UN Technical Agencies with Projects in Kazakhstan. Work with the government to draft and implement a comprehensive sex education policy as a matter of upholding the rights to en ligne education, information, and health. Work with the Ministry of Health to ensure that HIV surveillance data is collected on transgender populations. Disadvantages Writing? Ensure that all efforts are made to overcome the difficulties of reaching men who have sex with men and transgender women with safe and confidential HIV services. To the International Olympic Committee. Hold Kazakhstan accountable for the values enshrined in the Olympic Charter, including by ensuring that the des lunettes gratuitement, non-discrimination clauses in Principle 6 of the essays on picasso, Charter are upheld in domestic law in en ligne gratuitement advance of the July 2015 decision on the 2022 Winter Games and in the event that Kazakhstan is disadvantages of essay writing awarded the games. The report is based on in-depth Human Rights Watch research from des lunettes en ligne gratuitement January to on metamaterial June 2015, including interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and essayer en ligne gratuitement, transgender people in three cities in Kazakhstan in March 2015. Human Rights Watch interviewed 23 LGBT people, as well as a number of human rights activists and public health and social services practitioners and essays history, experts.

Interviews were conducted in English with the assistance of an interpreter in safe locations selected by participants. A handful of en ligne interviews were conducted in Russian with a Russian-speaking researcher. Human Rights Watch informed all interviewees of the purpose of the of essay writing, interview and how information collected would be used, and essayer gratuitement, received verbal consent before conducting the interview. No incentives were offered or provided for interviewees. At least 10 LGBT people declined to be interviewed by research papers, Human Rights Watch because they said they feared retaliation or lacked confidence in human rights procedures or advocacy to bring about change. Three people interviewed by Human Rights Watch referenced past experiences of abuse, but declined to recount these experiences because they were traumatic. Additional information was gathered from des lunettes gratuitement published sources, including laws, United Nations documents, academic research, and media. All interviewees’ names were changed for security reasons and the report uses pseudonyms, as indicated in the relevant citations.

In some cases, Human Rights Watch has withheld additional identifying information to protect interviewees’ privacy and safety. The LGBT people Human Rights Watch interviewed in Kazakhstan said that fear influences all aspects of their lives—fear that their sexual orientation or gender identity will impede their access to education, employment, and numerical solutions, health care; fear of violence while walking down the street; and, too often, dread at the prospect of everyday interactions with intolerant and essayer des lunettes en ligne, sometimes psychologically abusive family members. [1] Some described feelings of isolation and exhaustion from constantly masking their identities to protect themselves. History Of Hockey In Canada? Every LGBT person interviewed by Human Rights Watch said that discretion was essential to secure a measure of safety. But even invisibility comes with its own problems. Because LGBT people keep quiet in essayer en ligne order to thesis on metamaterial stay below the radar, society does not acknowledge the essayer gratuitement, gravity of the abuses they experience, officials fail to take them seriously, and abuses are severely under-reported. Inadequate Official Responses Fuel Distrust. Harassment, neglect, and discrimination against c3 coursework numerical, LGBT people are both pervasive and underreported in Kazakhstan. Des Lunettes En Ligne Gratuitement? A 2009 survey of nearly 1,000 LGBT people conducted by on picasso art, the Soros Foundation-Kazakhstan found that nearly 75 percent of respondents who had experienced violence did not report the incident to the police.

Of those who had attempted to des lunettes gratuitement report to the police, 38.5 percent received a “negative response.” [2] Many LGBT people understand violence perpetrated against essays, them as a source of shame or accept it as a “fact of life.” This appears to affect not only their willingness to report abuses but also the responses of officials when they do come forward, reinforcing their lack of des lunettes en ligne gratuitement confidence in authorities. In addition to shortcomings in numerical solutions law and policy discussed in later sections of this report, LGBT people are often reluctant to come forward because they fear reprisals from essayer des lunettes en ligne abusers and because police do not take their complaints seriously. Essays Of Hockey? Those who attempt to des lunettes en ligne gratuitement report incidents have encountered inadequate, negligent, and ignorant responses from bridges social services and law enforcement. LGBT people Human Rights Watch interviewed told us they distrust police because of their own or their friends’ negative experiences, and that they lack confidence in gratuitement the authorities’ willingness to on metamaterial pursue their complaints.

One activist in Astana described his opinion about responses from the essayer, police: “If LGBT people go to the police, we risk getting insulted at best, and at worst—attacked again. Most of the time it’s insulted and by robert bridges, intimidated; they threaten to expose us to our families and communities.” [3] Several people provided Human Rights Watch with examples of what happened when they tried to file reports of the incidents with the police. In one case, a gay man in essayer des lunettes en ligne Almaty said he had attempted to on metamaterial report a random mugging to the police who were standing a few hundred meters away from him when the incident took place. He explained: “I ran over to essayer des lunettes en ligne the police and on eros, told them what happened. I pointed to where it had happened, across the essayer, park. They shrugged and laughed at me, saying, ‘Oh you were over there, walking from that direction? Well that’s where the faggot night club is so we can’t help you.’” He said that since that incident in c3 coursework numerical March 2014, he has been attacked again, and several of his friends have been similarly mugged in parks at night.

None have reported any of the instances to essayer des lunettes gratuitement the police. “We don’t report anything, we even accept that this is numerical our fate and en ligne gratuitement, worse – that we deserve this as punishment for on metamaterial who we are,” he said. [4] In another case, Anya L., a transgender woman in Almaty, told Human Rights Watch about a time when two men forced their way into essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, her apartment and papers on research papers, beat her until she was unconscious. [5] She said that although she was discovered by a neighbor and taken to the hospital, the ensuing police investigation was characterized by intense prejudice. En Ligne Gratuitement? “The police asked a lot of useless questions. They didn’t believe what I said about the research papers, violence, and essayer des lunettes en ligne, they didn’t stay on topic,” Anya L. said. “They asked me questions about my body and harassed me when I gave them honest answers, and they must have asked 10 times, ‘Why do you look like this as a man?’ and ‘Why are you acting like this?’” Overwhelmed by essays on picasso, such harassing questions, Anya L . asked the officers to leave. Des Lunettes Gratuitement? They told her they would only depart if she agreed to sign an order that said she was dropping the case. “I signed it just so they would leave and stop the disadvantages of essay, questions. I was still wearing a neck brace and I was still in pain and essayer en ligne, I didn’t need to answer more questions about my genitalia,” she said. [6] In a case of domestic violence, Galina T., a 40-year-0ld lesbian in essays Astana, told Human Rights Watch that she hid material facts – including her sexual identity and nature of the des lunettes, relationship—from the police out of fear of their reaction to her sexual identity and the potential for future blackmail. [7] She explained that she had been in co-habiting relationships in writing the past seven years with two different female partners who abused her. She reported some cases to the police but never told them the perpetrator was her intimate partner. All of these cases were resolved by the police issuing warnings to her cohabiter. In 2014, during a domestic dispute, Galina T.’s partner stabbed her with a knife. En Ligne? “I did not report it, I just went to the hospital and took care of the wound,” she explained. “I knew the police would want to investigate something so violent, and they would ask questions – and I couldn’t risk having my girlfriend tell them we were a couple and then running away to leave me to of essay writing deal with that.” [8] While Galina T. cannot say what would have happened had she reported the stabbing to the police, she described a fear so overwhelming that she preferred keeping silent about the knife attack to reporting it and risking that her sexual identity would be exposed in the course of a police investigation. Damira K., 19, told Human Rights Watch her mother verbally abused and humiliated her repeatedly over the course of several months after discovering Damira had a girlfriend. [9] For example, immediately after discovering text messages between Damira and her girlfriend, the mother verbally harassed Damira in front of several relatives, and later that night took off her own pants and threw them at Damira’s face, saying, “Well, if you are attracted to women, you must enjoy this.” She then denied Damira food for two weeks in essayer des lunettes gratuitement an attempt to coerce her into visiting a psychotherapist who, her mother said, could “correct” her sexual orientation.

A few months later, one night in December 2014, Damira’s mother became enraged when she read Damira’s Facebook postings about lesbianism and immediately destroyed the essays in canada, computer. At that point Damira’s mother brought up an incident from when Damira was five years old when she had left her alone in a room with an uncle who apparently had been drinking and he had put his fingers inside of her. Essayer Des Lunettes Gratuitement? “It would have been better if he had just raped you then,” her mother shouted. Damira began to cry softly. “That’s when I realized I was nobody.” Damira sought advice from essays her city’s crisis center and police, but neither service provider offered her the kind of support she sought. “My voice was shaky, cracking when I called the police. I was so nervous and exhausted,” she recalled. Essayer Des Lunettes En Ligne? The police asked Damira if she was planning to thesis on metamaterial file a complaint against her mother. She said no. “I didn’t really know what that meant. It sounded strange to file a complaint against essayer des lunettes, my own mother, I wasn’t sure what would happen then – maybe it could get worse.” The police then hung up the solutions, phone without offering any other advice or options. Essayer Gratuitement? At the crisis center, Damira spoke with two counselors. “I don’t think they understood sexuality, so most of their questions were about that – not about the abuse,” she said.

When the by robert bridges, session finished, one of the essayer des lunettes gratuitement, counselors told her: “Oh well, it’s your mother and she loves you and only wants the best for you.” [10] Four people who had been employed at gay clubs in papers on research papers three cities in Kazakhstan told Human Rights Watch that club owners negotiated special relationships with police to protect their businesses and clients. Essayer En Ligne Gratuitement? Their descriptions of these relationships differed considerably. One club owner said the police were “completely friendly as long as everyone stayed inside.” [11] Another club owner said the police demanded regular bribes, and that he believed known gay clubs paid up to twice the amount of non-gay clubs “because the essays by robert bridges, police know they can use that information [about the clientele being gay] against us in the negotiation.” [12] Another former club employee described the relationship between the clubs and des lunettes en ligne, police as cosmetic: “It’s only to create safety in the immediate area for business purposes. The police are still completely homophobic, so once you walk away from the club you’re in history of hockey in canada danger again.” [13]

A young gay man in Astana summed up his intense distrust of the police, a distrust echoed by almost a dozen of the LGBT people interviewed by Human Rights Watch: “Without protections in any laws, how can we trust the essayer des lunettes gratuitement, police enough to even contact them? The combination of knowing there is no protection and research papers papers, knowing there is general homophobia in society means I have to distrust the police in order to survive.” [14] New Data on Transgender Individuals in Kazakhstan. A 2015 survey conducted by AlmaTQ, an initiative group (unregistered activist group) in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement Almaty formed in 2014 to support transgender and queer people, provides the on picasso, only data on the transgender population to date. Though the survey does not provide results representative of the transgender population in Kazakhstan, it is the first ever dataset on this difficult to reach population. Forty-one respondents from 11 cities and towns across the country responded to an online questionnaire. Eight respondents said they had experienced physical abuse due to prejudice against transgender people; 20 said they had not.

Of the 20 who answered that they had not experienced physical abuse, more than half reported they believed they avoided abuse because no one knew about their gender identity. When LGBT people in essayer Kazakhstan face discrimination, they can also turn to national human rights institutions, such as the National Commissioner for of hockey Human Rights, to essayer seek remedy. [15] However, this institution has not been found to be fully compliant with the Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions (“the Paris Principles”). [16] In its 2014 review of Kazakhstan, the UN Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) highlighted structural insufficiencies that limit the ability of these offices to deal with cases of discrimination. According to the Committee, “the Commissioner lacks adequate budgetary and human resources” and “the mandate of the Commissioner excludes consideration of complaints against various State authorities.” The Committee also noted “the low number of complaints” and the “absence of court decisions in essays on eros bridges administrative, civil, and en ligne, criminal proceedings on acts of racial discrimination, which are indicative of a lack of practical remedies for victims of on picasso such acts.” [17] When asked about how they are seeking recourse to justice, LGBT people in Kazakhstan told Human Rights Watch they did not trust either of the national human rights institutes or other bodies, such as the courts, to des lunettes en ligne fully safeguard their identity if they were to bring forth a complaint, and were thus reluctant to make use of them.

And in a 2015 report, Kazakhstan’s leading human rights NGO, Kazakhstan Bureau for of essay Human Rights and Rule of Law, found a similar situation with respect to essayer en ligne gratuitement court cases, noting : “To this date we have no knowledge of any court cases regarding discrimination [against] sexual minorities.” [18] Obstacles to Effective Health Care. Due to abusive experiences in medical settings and society-wide homophobic attitudes, LGBT individuals in essays bridges Kazakhstan often conceal their identities from health care providers. In a 2014 essay, the director of the Kazakhstan Association on Sexual and Reproductive Health argued: “In spite of all the efforts made in en ligne gratuitement the last twenty years by NGOs and international organizations, sexuality remains an extremely sensitive issue here.” [19] A 2009 Soros Foundation survey found that 66 percent of history in canada LGBT people conceal their identity from health care providers, [20] while a 2012 survey of 400 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Almaty, conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University, recorded that barely 3 percent of respondents had told their health care providers of essayer their same-sex intimate relations. On Picasso? [21] A 2009 evaluation of the Global Fund’s HIV project in Kazakhstan noted that “MSM remain one of the hardest to gratuitement reach groups with the minimal level of writing coverage by preventive activities.” The report attributed the inadequate prevention interventions to essayer gratuitement “Negative and sometimes hostile attitude of the society, including medical personnel and the law enforcement agencies towards MSM, as well as self-stigmatization of this group.” It noted that, as a result, “MSM tried to avoid visiting medical institutions due to the fear of being seen by acquaintances or police….” [22] Nikolai B., a 38-year-old gay man in papers on research Almaty, told Human Rights Watch that in March 2014 he took his gay male friend to the hospital after the latter complained of des lunettes gratuitement a fever and pain in his rectum. “The doctor examined him and then stepped back and said ‘I don’t help faggots,’” Nikolai B. said. By Robert? The medical workers left the room. He followed them into the hallway, begging them to return. “The nurses never came back—no one did,” Nikolai B. said.

His friend died two days later; since the doctors never returned to the room, he never learned the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, cause of death. [23] After intruders brutally beat a transgender woman in her Almaty apartment, a neighbor helped her go to research a government hospital in the city. There, she said, doctors asked her questions about essayer en ligne her genitalia before examining her injuries and repeatedly made pejorative remarks, which made her feel unsafe during her seven-day stay for recovery. She told Human Rights Watch she could not repeat the terms they used because they were so hurtful, and c3 coursework numerical, that she would never go back to a government hospital no matter what her injury was. [24] A Step Back for Gender Recognition. Transgender people in Kazakhstan face intense social prejudice and essayer, discrimination. Bigotry on c3 coursework numerical behalf of des lunettes gratuitement police, health care staff, and other officials can mean transgender people have few, if any, places to turn for research on research papers refuge or services. In the 2015 AlmaTQ survey of 41 transgender people in gratuitement Kazakhstan, when asked what needed to happen to help them become more fully integrated in society, nearly two-thirds of respondents answered that they needed to research on research papers change their legal gender on essayer documents, while only two respondents had actually been able to do so. For transgender people in Kazakhstan, as detailed below, the legal gender recognition procedure requires humiliating, invasive, and on picasso, abusive procedures in essayer order to change gender on official documents.

Transgender people who attempted to go through the disadvantages writing, procedure described being harassed and insulted by officials, and coerced into having medically unnecessary procedures performed. A transgender woman in Almaty explained that she was not planning to attempt to change her legal gender because she was “horrified of our state institutions.” She explained that, “Every time I need to interact with officials, I just present as male. Des Lunettes? I tie my hair up and they just think I’m a punk or something. I’ve done this at the bank, the airport, the tax office.” [25] Among the most fundamental barriers to realizing the human rights of transgender people, including protecting them from violence and discrimination, are obstacles to solutions having their gender identity legally recognized. [26] When transgender people carry documents that list a sex or gender that does not match their identity and appearance, officials subject them to humiliating and sometimes abusive scrutiny.

A transgender man in essayer Almaty told Human Rights Watch that the four times he has traveled internationally, airport security officials have harassed him. “First, the guard looks at my documents and disadvantages of essay writing, is confused; next he looks at me and asks what’s going on; then I tell him I’m transgender; then I show him my medical certificates; then he gathers his colleagues around, everyone he can find, and essayer gratuitement, they all look and solutions, point and laugh at essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement me and thesis, then eventually let me go.” [27] A transgender woman in Almaty told Human Rights Watch that in early 2015 police held her without charge after officers stopped her as she was walking home from work, and essayer en ligne, harassed her when they saw her “male” ID document. Essays Bridges? [28] For some transgender people, the difficulty in obtaining legal recognition of their gender identity can prevent them from getting jobs. Producing official documents is a requirement for obtaining work in Kazakhstan, and transgender individuals face added scrutiny and des lunettes, possible accusations of fraud if they do not conform to of essay writing the gender set forth on their official documents. As Slava N., a transgender man, explained: “Since I can’t change my documents, I have to work only des lunettes en ligne, as an under-the-table freelancer. I can only do small jobs, and even then only for people who trust me.” [29] He said that since transitioning, he has been verbally harassed at a bank where he had to show his (female) documents in order to access his account.

Vadim K., a 42-year-old transgender man in Astana, explained his experience after he began his transition in 2012. “When I walked into an office and applied for a job and gave them my [birth-assigned female name], when they saw my documents, they told me to of hockey in canada go to a psychiatric clinic…. Essayer Des Lunettes En Ligne? I worry [when applying for jobs]: what will happen first? Will they call the police or the ambulance? Both are ways of papers punishing me, making me disappear—because they think I’m mentally ill and they think that’s criminal.” [30] Based on reading message boards about gender transitioning, Vadim understood that hormones and other medical procedures would be expensive, and obtaining formal employment would be difficult. He prepared for this by gratuitement, registering an enterprise in his birth-assigned (female) name, then listing himself (Vadim) as the president of the on research, company.

He tells his clients the owner of the company is his sister and that she lives abroad, which has enabled him to maintain some basic income after he visibly transitioned. Previously, Kazakhstan allowed individuals to change their legally recognized gender under a Ministry of essayer des lunettes Health directive, Order No. 435, that dates back to 2003. Research? [31] The procedure required invasive and abusive processes, but it did not explicitly mandate genital surgery. During that period, people who wanted to change their legal gender had to receive a diagnosis of “gender identity disorder,” involving several medical tests and a 30-day psychiatric evaluation. Once the diagnosis was delivered, the person had to appear before a special commission to essayer des lunettes en ligne confirm the diagnosis.

In 2009, a new health code [32] introduced the “the right to sex change,” specifying sex reassignment surgery as a possibility. Thesis? The government then considered the specific meaning and implementation of this right and drafted guidelines. [33] The guidelines, passed in 2011, specifically added increasingly coercive and humiliating procedures to essayer gratuitement the previous requirements in order for the commission to confirm a diagnosis. [34] The new procedure reads: Gender reassignment medical measures are realized upon the results of the Commission’s decision, and include two stages: Numerous international bodies have called for the clear separation of medical procedures from legal procedures in gender recognition processes, including the of hockey in canada, Council of Europe. [36] The Yogyakarta Principles note that: “No one shall be forced to undergo medical procedures, including sex reassignment surgery, sterilization or hormonal therapy, as a requirement for legal recognition of their gender identity.” [37] The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture has called upon all states “to repeal any law allowing intrusive and irreversible treatments, including forced genital-normalizing surgery, involuntary sterilization, unethical experimentation … when enforced or administered without the free and informed consent of the person concerned.” He also called upon states “to outlaw forced or coerced sterilization in all circumstances and provide special protection to individuals belonging to marginalized groups.” [38]

Consistently negative media portrayals distort public perceptions of en ligne gratuitement LGBT people in Kazakhstan. Research Papers On Research? A recent incident involving the prosecution of an essayer en ligne gratuitement, advertising agency for c3 coursework numerical creating and essayer en ligne gratuitement, circulating a poster that depicted two men kissing illustrates some of the underlying dynamics. On August 24, 2014, a copy of an unpublished poster, designed by Havas Worldwide Kazakhstan, an Almaty-based advertising agency, was posted on essays on picasso art Facebook. The image depicted two male cultural icons, Kazakh composer Kurmangazy Sagyrbaiuly and des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin, kissing. The embrace shown on the poster is a reference to the intersection of Kurmangazy and Pushkin streets in on picasso Almaty, which is also the location of des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a gay-friendly club, Studio 69. - Aliya C., a 28-year-old lesbian in Astanap. Within a month, the on eros, Almaty mayor’s office filed a suit against en ligne gratuitement, the advertising agency. Separately, a group of individuals studying or working at a national conservatory and orchestra named after Kurmangazy also filed suit against the agency. The class action plaintiffs claimed the poster was “unethical” and offensive not only “to the essays history in canada, honor and dignity of the composer’s and poet’s descendants” but to “all people not indifferent to their art….” The mayor’s office contended that the poster “offends the image of des lunettes en ligne gratuitement these great artists and violates widespread moral norms and solutions, behaviors, given that it shows nontraditional sexual relations, which are unacceptable to society.” [39]

An Almaty court ruled in favor of the mayor’s office, finding the poster “unethical” and fined both Havas and its director a total of approximately $1,700 for violating Kazakhstan’s law on advertising. A second Almaty court, ruling on en ligne a class action lawsuit against the advertising agency, stated that “the poster leaves a lasting, negative impression amongst a large group of people toward the memory of Kurmangazy Sagyrbaiuly.” The 34 plaintiffs were awarded 34 million tenge (approximately US$186,000) in damages in October 2014. [40] The kissing poster case is a high profile example of the repercussions people in Kazakhstan can face when they express information about essays history of hockey LGBT people in a neutral or positive light. A journalist working in des lunettes Karaganda told Human Rights Watch: “I get backlash when I publish stories about LGBT people that are not purely scandalous.” She recounted an incident after she published a television report about gay people when a man, having recognized her from TV, accosted her in disadvantages of essay writing a grocery store and shouted: “You cannot convince me LGBT people are good and right. If I see faggots in the street, I would beat them up.” [41] In the case of the Kurmangazy-Pushkin poster, the impact of the public backlash went beyond hateful rhetoric in social media networks. The publication of the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, poster on research papers on research Facebook prompted leaders of the Bolashak (Future) national movement [42] to organize a roundtable against homosexuality in Almaty in essayer en ligne August. [43] Then, on September 11, 2014, Bolashak leaders called on Kazakhstan lawmakers to adopt a law banning LGBT “propaganda,” akin to the 2013 Russian law banning “propaganda of nontraditional sexual relationships among minors.” [44] When asked about the pending propaganda bill, interviewees expressed to Human Rights Watch a variety of fears related to it, many of which were related to access to information. Writing? For example, public health practitioners told Human Rights Watch that they feared the law would force them to censor or otherwise demarcate HIV education materials. Askar B., a 28-year-old gay man in gratuitement Almaty, explained that he was concerned about young people – based on his own experience.

He said: I knew when I was 12 that I liked boys. I went looking for information of course, to explain what this was. What happens if this law is in place? A gay boy gets harassed at school and under this new law no one will stand up for him because they’re afraid of “promoting” homosexuality – even the law in this case would be against him. But it’s not propaganda, it’s his life and he’s trying to learn about it. [45] He referenced Deti-404, or “Children 404,” an bridges, online support group for LGBT children in Russia where they can go to discuss violence and harassment they face at school and home and receive help. Deti-404 administrators have been sued multiple times in various Russian courts under the “propaganda” law. [46] “When you read Deti-404 you get an idea of how this law has affected children in en ligne Russia. It will be the same here, if not worse,” explained Askar B. [47] He told Human Rights Watch he thought part of the information access problem in Kazakhstan is that, without fact-based information about LGBT people, outspoken homophobic government officials can claim expert status:

These deputies involved in the bill know so much about homosexuality, they say. But the problem is that they speak authoritatively and come across as experts even though everything they’re saying is nonsense. If they legally scare us into silence with the propaganda law, they will have the last word on all of these issues. [48] People in same-sex relationships who are raising children in Kazakhstan described to Human Rights Watch their struggles to counter the tide of negative opinions and distorted information their children were exposed to outside of the home. “All of the Russian language resources [that I have found] online cite the Regnerus study.

I was so upset to see this, but there’s not any counter-sourcing in Russian language,” explained Ninel V., a 26-year-old lesbian mother, referring to bridges a paper published in 2012 by the University of Texas sociologist, Mark Regnerus. [49] The widely-discredited paper purported to demonstrate that children raised in same-sex households have poor outcomes as adults. [50] She described searching the Internet for Russian-language materials about des lunettes gratuitement same-sex parenting as “impossibly frustrating because everything available reinforces the on eros, hate I already feel from people around me.” For Elena R., a woman who has been raising her 12-year-old daughter in Astana with her partner, who began transitioning from female to male two years ago, the essayer des lunettes en ligne, struggle to counter the onslaught of distorted information about LGBT people her daughter receives is overwhelming. Essays In Canada? “Even my mother tells my other family members to be careful around me, and des lunettes gratuitement, that I’m like a pedophile because I’m queer and I have a child,” she said. Elena R. explained that she attempts to talk with her daughter on a regular basis. “I try to remind her that I’m her mother, I’m a normal human being,” she said. “But she spends most of her time with her friends or at school, so the majority of the information she receives is hateful, people tell her I’m a freak and disadvantages of essay writing, unnatural and immoral.” [51] Anara K., a transgender woman in Almaty, said it was important for her safety to “stay invisible” and essayer des lunettes, explained that similar fears kept most LGBT people in Kazakhstan from publicly disclosing their identities. This “invisibility” inevitably contributes to public ignorance on matters of gender and sexuality, and she worries that “[w]hen [LGBT issues] come up in the form of a propaganda law, that means their introduction to on picasso art the subject is skewed from the en ligne gratuitement, outset.” [52] According to a submission on Kazakhstan made to the UN Human Right Council by the Sexual Rights Initiative and Labrys, a national NGO in Kyrgyzstan, “well-known sexologists repeatedly make remarks in on eros by robert bridges the media about reasons why people can be LGBT that are scientifically unproven.” The report noted that “stereotypes expressed by medical professionals through means of media and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, during individual consultations that can and have been harmful.” [53] A physician at a government-run HIV clinic in Almaty told Human Rights Watch that she sees evidence of misleading information in essays art the questions some of her gay and bisexual patients ask: “Instead of asking about sexual behaviors or protection methods, they ask about whether they are really mentally ill.” The same physician said that faculty at the Almaty medical school contribute to the problem: “I hear my colleagues talking about how they refuse to treat people because they are gay, for example, and I know the students overhear this as well.” [54] The UNESCO country programming document for Kazakhstan notes that “teachers generally … encounter a shortage of des lunettes en ligne comprehensive teaching and learning materials on HIV and AIDS.” [55] LGBT people grapple with the solutions, barrage of inaccurate and hateful information by sharing personal stories in networks of des lunettes en ligne gratuitement friends and on the Internet, and seeking what limited scientific information there is available in Russian and Kazakh languages online.

But despite this resilience, the unchecked deluge of essays history of hockey homophobic vitriol can have profound impact. Or, as Ninel V., the gratuitement, young lesbian mother, explained: “The problem is that we start to believe these nasty things about ourselves because there’s no counter-argument in papers papers public.” [56] The government of Kazakhstan should publicly counter hateful and inaccurate statements, including by introducing accurate information about gender and sexuality in school curriculums and providing sensitivity training to public officials. They should make it clear in en ligne all public government messaging that LGBT people are entitled to equal protection under the law, equal protection of their human rights, and full and equal respect. On May 18, 2015, Kazakhstan’s Constitutional Council found two pieces of pending anti-gay “propaganda” legislation unconstitutional. The later stages of the process by which amendments, including the amendment introducing the ban on essays “propaganda” of nontraditional sexual orientation, had been introduced, debated, and passed through the parliament and executive office, however, was troublingly non-transparent.

The months-long consideration of the laws since the propaganda clauses were introduced also stoked fears among LGBT people in Kazakhstan because of the essayer, hateful message the essays on picasso art, laws sent and en ligne gratuitement, the potential impact had they come into force. The two draft laws passed the upper house of Kazakhstan’s parliament, the Senate, on February 19, 2015. Research Papers? The bills were titled: “On Protecting Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and Development” and an accompanying set of laws entitled “On Amendments and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Additions to Several Legal Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan Concerning the Protection of Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and Development.” The draft laws appeared to include a broad ban on the publication or sharing of information relating to same-sex relations in settings where children might receive or encounter that information. [57] Specifically, according to on metamaterial information available online, an amendment to the draft bill “On Protecting Children from Information Harmful to their Health and Development” broadly prohibited “propagandizing nontraditional sexual orientation” among children. An amendment to the draft bill “On Amendments and Additions to several legal acts of the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Republic of Kazakhstan concerning the protection of children from information harmful their health and development” would have introduced changes to the law “On Broadcasting,” including a ban on the broadcasting of “foreign television and radio material that contains information harmful to the health and development of history of hockey in canada children, and gratuitement, which propagandizes nontraditional sexual orientation.” As discussed in more detail below, while such laws speak of c3 coursework concerns for children, the risk is that such a law could be applied to any and all materials that include positive portrayals of LGBT individuals of any kind, including materials aimed at adult readers. On March 26, Human Rights Watch wrote to the Kazakhstan presidential administration seeking clarity on the content of the draft legislation, but never received a reply. - Psychologist at an HIV clinic, Almaty. Nearly everyone Human Rights Watch interviewed in Kazakhstan in March 2015 as the des lunettes en ligne, drafts moved from the Senate to the president for signature expressed fear of the impending laws. As one 28-year-0ld lesbian in Astana explained: “If the law comes into effect, it’s not about its specific use.

It’s about giving sanction to the homophobia that is already everywhere around us. We feel it constantly, this law would just put it on paper.” [58] As a doctor at numerical an HIV clinic in Almaty put it: “If the propaganda bill becomes law, the LGBT community will go into deeper hiding. We will become a clinic that registers deaths of young men because they don’t get care in time due to fear of being honest about themselves – and this fear will be in law.” [59] The provisions in essayer des lunettes en ligne the draft laws are discriminatory and disadvantages of essay, would limit free expression and freedom of the essayer gratuitement, media in Kazakhstan by c3 coursework numerical solutions, effectively preventing dissemination of information and essayer des lunettes en ligne, any positive affirmation of LGBT people. The final stages of the process surrounding the draft laws were troublingly non-transparent, making it very difficult to fully verify the progress of the draft laws. A number of local and international human rights groups expressed concern about the numerical solutions, bills.

Amnesty International issued a public urgent action alert about the draft legislation on March 26, 2015. [60] On April 14, 2015, the des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, International Partnership for disadvantages of essay Human Rights, along with the Kazakhstan International Bureau for en ligne gratuitement Human Rights and Rule of on research papers Law, wrote an open letter to the International Olympic Committee calling on them to ensure the “propaganda” law did not pass. [61] - Anara K., a transgender woman in Almaty. On March 17, 2015, the website of the Constitutional Council indicated that the bills were on its docket for gratuitement review. [62] On May 26, a Constitutional Council’s spokesperson announced that the bills had been found unconstitutional given their “vague wording.” On June 25, the essays, Kazakhstanska Pravda newspaper reportedly published the Constitutional Council decision dated May 18. [63] Media reports quoting the Constitutional Council clarify that the rejection of the essayer des lunettes gratuitement, legislation was strictly on technical grounds and that the government of Kazakhstan reserves the essays, right to essayer des lunettes gratuitement “enact laws that restrict citizens’ rights to access and distribute information as part of its responsibility to ‘defend marriage and family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood.’” [64] Another media report quoted a member of parliament saying the draft legislation would be introduced in parliament again before the end of this year, reiterating that the Constitutional Council’s decision was only technical. [65] While the Constitutional Council set an important precedent by rejecting this discriminatory legislation, its decision does not address the discriminatory elements of the draft “propaganda” legislation. Authorities should do more to tackle homophobic attitudes and essays on picasso art, discrimination in Kazakhstan. Des Lunettes? This includes providing sensitivity training, including about sexual orientation and gender identity, to police, health care workers, and social service providers, and the government should publicly condemn acts of writing violence and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, discrimination. On June 29, 2013, Russian president Vladimir Putin signed Federal Law No. 135-FZ which, like the legislation proposed in 2015 in Kazakhstan, bans the numerical, “promotion of nontraditional sexual relationship to essayer en ligne gratuitement minors,” a reference that is universally understood to be lesbian, gay, and bisexual relationships. [66] In a report published in December 2014, Human Rights Watch documented LGBT people being beaten, abducted, humiliated, and called “pedophiles” or “perverts,” in essays by robert some cases by homophobic vigilante groups and in others by strangers on the subway, on the street, at essayer nightclubs, at history cafes, and in essayer en ligne gratuitement one case, at essays on eros a job interview. [67] As reactions to Russia’s “propaganda” law demonstrate, such legislation violates international human rights standards and can stoke hate and violence against LGBT people.

A legal opinion issued in June 2013 by the Venice Commission, the Council of Europe’s advisory panel on constitutional matters, concluded that Russia’s federal anti-LGBT (at that time draft) law was “incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights and international human rights standards” and should be repealed. Essayer Gratuitement? [68] Like in Kazakhstan, Russia’s law was promoted and drafted by thesis, politicians who purported it would protect children from a potential harmful subject matter. En Ligne Gratuitement? However, in a January 2014 review of Russia’s compliance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Committee on the Rights of the Child recommended that the Russian authorities repeal the law and research on research, “ensure that children who belong to LGBTI groups or children of LGBTI families are not subjected to des lunettes gratuitement any forms of discrimination by raising the awareness of the public on art equality and essayer des lunettes gratuitement, nondiscrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.” [69] Human Rights Watch wrote on June 23, 2015 to Kazakhstan’s Constitutional Council and disadvantages, Presidential Administration seeking clarity on the content of the drafts that were under consideration and the Constitutional Council’s decision. On July 13, the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Constitutional Council replied, confirming the date they issued their decision (May 18) on disadvantages writing the constitutionality of the bills, noting that the decision had been published on June 25 in two official newspapers. However, the essayer gratuitement, Constitutional Council did not provide Human Rights Watch copies of the final drafts of the bills or of the decision as requested. [70] Kazakhstan’s Human Rights Legal Obligations. Despite some protections for discrimination on the basis of sex, which could be interpreted to essays history protect against essayer en ligne gratuitement, discrimination against LGBT people, Kazakhstan’s laws offer no specific protection for discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.

The government’s pejorative construal of on metamaterial homosexuality in some policies, moreover, makes it unlikely that authorities will apply existing law in ways that extend meaningful protections to LGBT individuals. Kazakhstan’s laws contain protections against discrimination that can protect sexual orientation. However, the lack of specific mention of essayer des lunettes gratuitement sexual orientation leaves protection gaps. Kazakhstan’s Constitution, under article 14, part 2, guarantees that: “No one shall be subject to discrimination for reasons of … sex … or any other circumstances.” It also guarantees, under article 20, “freedom of speech and creative activities.” Kazakhstan’s Criminal Code forbids: “ Direct or indirect restriction of rights and freedoms of a person (citizen) on the grounds of origin, social, official capacity or property status, gender, race, nationality, language, attitude towards religion, convictions, place of residence, belonging to public association, or any other circumstances.” [71] The Administrative Code Article 9 on “Equality in court and history of hockey in canada, law” states: “Everyone is equal in court and law in administrative procedure. Nobody can be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of origin, social, position, property, sex, race, nationality, language, religious views, convictions, residence or any other circumstances.” The Code on des lunettes gratuitement Public Health and Healthcare System, in Article 91 on c3 coursework numerical solutions Patients’ Rights, states: “The patient has a right to … medical assistance in order of essayer des lunettes precedence determined by medical criteria with no discrimination factors.” [72] But beyond the absence of enumerated protections on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, other policies in Kazakhstan openly discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation and disadvantages of essay, gender identity, stigmatizing LGBT people. For example, the essayer en ligne gratuitement, “Requirements for on eros by robert Health Status of Law Enforcement Servicemen” deems applicants unfit if they have “personality disorders” including “gender identity disorder [and] sexual preference disorder.” [73] The 2001 Concept of des lunettes gratuitement Moral and Sex Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan lists homosexuality in history of hockey the same section as “teen prostitution,” and alcohol and drug consumption. [74] Kazakhstan’s National Human Rights Action Plan 2009-2012 only mentions LGBT people once, in the human trafficking section, where it remarks: “The recipients of essayer des lunettes en ligne profit are transnational organizations of dealers and pimps.” [75] The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Kazakhstan ratified in 2006, requires states to “respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of numerical any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status.” [76] In the 1994 case of Toonen v. Australia , the U.N.

Human Rights Committee, the authoritative body responsible for interpreting the en ligne gratuitement, ICCPR and monitoring States’ compliance with their obligations, held that “sexual orientation” was a status protected from discrimination under the ICCPR’s equality clauses. [77] Specifically, it held that “the reference to ‘sex’ in article 2, paragraph 1 and article 26 is to be taken as including sexual orientation.” [78] Two resolutions by thesis on metamaterial, the Human Rights Council, in 2011 and in en ligne gratuitement 2014, affirmed these principles. [79] As party to the ICCPR, Kazakhstan has an obligation to respect freedom of expression; the essays on picasso, personal, private, and family lives of individuals; the right to en ligne equality; and on picasso, the ban on discrimination in the enjoyment of those rights. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which Kazakhstan acceded to in 1998, obligates states in article 1 to eradicate any distinction, exclusion, or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the essayer des lunettes, effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of numerical solutions equality of men and women of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. CEDAW article 5.a. commits states “to modify the essayer gratuitement, social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to achieving the elimination of of essay prejudices and customary and en ligne gratuitement, all other practices which are based on c3 coursework the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on des lunettes en ligne gratuitement stereotyped roles for men and women.” Both articles are violated when people are singled out for essays bridges unequal treatment because they fail to conform to social or cultural expectations for essayer des lunettes women and men. [80] The 2006 Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity affirm the papers, standards of the en ligne gratuitement, ICCPR and CEDAW. The Principles state: “Everyone is entitled to enjoy all human rights without discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.” They instruct states to amend domestic legislation accordingly, including by targeting public and private acts of thesis on metamaterial discrimination. [81] The Yogyakarta Principles instruct states to “take all necessary legislative, administrative, and other measures to prevent and provide protection from torture and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, perpetrated for reasons relating to the sexual orientation or gender identity of the victim, as well as the incitement of such acts.” [82] This report was researched by by robert, Kyle Knight, researcher in essayer en ligne gratuitement the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights program at Human Rights Watch, and Mihra Rittmann, researcher in the Europe and Central Asia division. Syinat Sultanalieva provided valuable interpretation and research assistance in Kazakhstan. The report was written by Kyle Knight and reviewed by Mihra Rittmann, Graeme Reid, director of the LGBT rights program, Aisling Reidy, senior legal adviser, and Joe Saunders, deputy program director.

Kathryn Zehr and in canada, Viktoriya Kim, associate and coordinator, respectively, in the Europe and Central Asia division, provided valuable support during the research process. Minky Worden, director of essayer des lunettes gratuitement global initiatives, Jane Buchanan, associate director of the Europe and Central Asia division, and c3 coursework, Boris Dittrich, advocacy director in the LGBT rights program, engaged with the gratuitement, International Olympics Committee as part of the research for this report. Adam Frankel, coordinator in the LGBT rights program, and Elizabeth Wilke, associate in the development and outreach department and LGBT rights program, Grace Choi, publications director, and Kathy Mills, publications specialist, provided production assistance. Human Rights Watch would like to thank the activists, experts, and LGBT people who gave us their valuable time during the c3 coursework solutions, research for this report, and shared with us their analysis and essayer gratuitement, personal stories. Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Rogov Igor Ivanovich. Chairman of the Constitutional Council of the on picasso art, Republic of essayer des lunettes gratuitement Kazakhstan. Dear Mr. Of Essay? Igor Ivanovich, On behalf of essayer des lunettes gratuitement Human Rights Watch, please accept our regards. As you may know, Human Rights Watch is an international nongovernmental organization that investigates and reports on research papers papers human rights abuses in essayer des lunettes over 90 countries.

Human Rights Watch has been monitoring the situation in on metamaterial Kazakhstan for approximately 20 years. We work on a range of human rights issues, including freedom of essayer en ligne gratuitement expression and the media, children’s rights, and the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in countries worldwide. We are currently preparing a report on LGBT rights in Kazakhstan. In March, colleagues in essays history of hockey in canada our LGBT program and Europe and Central Asia division travelled to Kazakhstan and essayer des lunettes, spoke to thesis on metamaterial a range of LGBT people and relevant human rights and health experts to gather information about this issue. Human Rights Watch makes every effort to ensure that our findings include the government’s perspective. Des Lunettes? We are thus writing to inquire about two bills that had passed the upper house of Kazakhstan’s senate, and art, which were reviewed and ultimately rejected by Kazakhstan’s Constitutional Council. These are “On Protecting Children from Information Harmful to their Health and Development” and On Amendments and Additions to several legal acts of the Republic of essayer des lunettes gratuitement Kazakhstan concerning the protection of children from information harmful to their health and development.” There was no transparency in the process by which the bills moved from the papers papers, Senate to the Constitutional Council and, to date, there are no publicly accessible versions of the final copy of the essayer gratuitement, bills or the Constitutional Council’s decision. On March 26, 2015, we sent a letter to the Presidential Administration inquiring about the content of the final drafts of the above-mentioned two bills and expressing our serious concern that they appeared to contain discriminatory provisions that, if adopted, would violate Kazakhstan’s constitution and international legal obligations.

Regrettably, we did not receive a response to our letter. A government website indicates that on April 29, the draft laws were with the Constitutional Council. According to limited publicly available information, the Constitutional Council announced on history of hockey in canada May 26, 2015, that the pending legislation was unconstitutional because of the bills’ vague wording. Media reports quoting Constitutional Council officials reiterate that the Council’s findings are narrowly limited to the vagueness of the legislation. [83] While the Constitutional Council took an important decision in essayer gratuitement rejecting the propaganda bills, we remain concerned that the decision does not address the discriminatory elements of the bills and on picasso art, potentially leaves open the essayer des lunettes en ligne, possibility that such bills could be considered in the future. During our research on the human rights situation for essays of hockey in canada LGBT people in Kazakhstan, we interviewed people who expressed intense fears of how such laws would sanction hatred, discrimination, and violence against essayer gratuitement, the LGBT community in Kazakhstan. We interviewed victims of violence who had been unable to achieve appropriate redress for the abuses they had suffered because of hateful attitudes and discriminatory behavior on the part of police and of hockey in canada, social service providers.

We heard from essayer des lunettes gratuitement LGBT people and public health practitioners how readily-available public information about essays of hockey sexual orientation and gender identity in Kazakhstan was already harmfully distorted, and essayer gratuitement, would only become more restricted and inaccurate if a so-called “propaganda” law came into effect. We seek clarification about the content of the final drafts of the bills as they were reviewed by the Constitutional Council, and the official analysis of the Council in bridges finding the legislation unconstitutional. Could your office kindly provide Human Rights Watch a copy of the final drafts of the bills, as well as a copy of the decision of the Constitutional Council announced on May 26, 2015? We would also be happy to receive any additional relevant information or materials you wish to provide on these issues. Thank you for your attention to this letter. We look forward to your reply by July 1, 2015 so that we may accurately reflect the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan’s perspective in our forthcoming report. We can be reached at: Human Rights Watch. Neue Promenade 5. 10178 Berlin, Germany. Human Rights Watch.

350 5 th Avenue, 34 th Floor. New York, NY 10118, USA. Europe and Central Asia Division. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights Program. Letter from the Constitutional Council of the Republic of des lunettes en ligne Kazakhstan to disadvantages of essay writing Human Rights Watch. Received July 13, 2015. STATE INSTITUTION “CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN” 39 Kunaev St., Astana 010000, Kazakhstan.

Tel.: (7172) 74 76 31. Fax: (7172) 74 76 51. To: Hugh Williamson. Director, Europe and Central Asia Division. Human Rights Watch. Director, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights Program.

Human Rights Watch. We are referring to your letter of June 16, 2015. Indeed, on May 18, 2015 the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan at its open meeting reviewed and made its final decision on the submission by the Chairman of the Senate of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan who asked to check conformity of the Kazakhstan’s laws “On Protecting Children from Information Harmful to their Health and Development” and “On Amendments and Additions to several legal acts of the des lunettes en ligne, Republic of Kazakhstan concerning the protection of children from information harmful to their health and development” to the Kazakhstan’s Constitution and the request by the Chairman of Mazhilis of the Parliament of the Republic of disadvantages of essay writing Kazakhstan to give a formal interpretation of several constitutional provisions. Des Lunettes En Ligne? The submission and the request were consolidated into a single constitutional proceeding. On June 25, 2015, regulatory resolution N3 of the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 18, 2015 was published in official newspapers, namely in thesis Kazakhstanskaya Pravda and Egemen Kazakhstan . The Constitutional Council and its Apparatus do not comment on the decisions taken. Head of Apparatus.

Prepared by I.Maripova, tel.:74-76-25. [1] A 2008 Human Rights Watch report documented similar abuses in Kyrgyzstan. Human Rights Watch, These Everyday Humiliations: Violence Against Lesbians, Bisexual Woman, and Transgender Men in en ligne Kyrgyzstan, October 2008, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/kyrgyzstan1008.pdf . [2] Soros Foundation—Kazakhstan, Unacknowledged and Unprotected: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People in papers on research papers Kazakhstan, November 2009, http://www.soros.kz/uploads/user_67/2013_09_04__04_43_19__269.pdf (accessed July 16, 2015). [3] Human Rights Watch interview with Alexander M. (pseudonym), Astana, March 23, 2015. [4] Human Rights Watch interview with Nikolai B. (pseudonym), Almaty, April 9, 2015. [5] Human Rights Watch interview with Anya L. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 20, 2015. [6] Human Rights Watch interview with Anya L. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 20, 2015. [7] Human Rights Watch interview with Galina T. (pseudonym), Astana, March 23, 2015.

[9] Human Rights Watch interview with Damira K. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 17, 2015. [11] Human Rights Watch interview with Oleg B. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 19, 2015. [12] Human Rights Watch interview with Daniil O. (pseudonym), Astana, March 23, 2015. [13] Human Rights Watch interview with Aliya C. (pseudonym), Astana, March 24, 2015. [14] Human Rights Watch interview with Daniil O. (pseudonym), March 23, 2015. [15] Information on the commissioner’s office is available at: http://www.ombudsman.kz/en/ ; information on the human rights center, its affiliate institution that “provides the Commissioner for Human Rights with information on the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, international treaties of the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Republic of Kazakhstan in the sphere of human rights,” is available at: http://www.ombudsman.kz/en/about/polozhenie_o_centre.php . [16] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, International Coordinating Committee of National Institutions for papers on research the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Chart of the Status of National Institutes, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/NHRI/Chart_Status_NIs.pdf (accessed July 15, 2015). [17] Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, “Concluding observations on the combined sixth and seventh periodic reports of Kazakhstan,” CERD/C/KAZ/CO/6-7, March 14, 2014, http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD/C/KAZ/CO/6-7Lang=En (accessed July 16, 2015). [18] Kazakhstan Bureau for Human Rights and Rule of Law, “Kazakhstan: Analysis of essayer en ligne National Legislation Discriminating Against or Violating Rights of LGBT Community,” 2015, on file with Human Rights Watch.

[19] International Planned Parenthood Federation, “HIV prevention: why sexuality needs a makeover in Kazakhstan,” July 23, 2014, http://www.ippf.org/news/blogs/HIV-prevention-why-sexuality-needs-makeover-Kazakhstan . [20] Soros Foundation-Kazakhstan, “Unacknowledged and Unprotected: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People in Kazakhstan,” 2009, http://www.soros.kz/uploads/user_67/2013_09_04__04_43_19__269.pdf (accessed April 30, 2015). [21] Mark Berry, et al., “Risk Factors for HIV and Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Almaty, Kazakhstan,” PLoS ONE, August 24, 2012 (accessed July 16, 2015), http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0043071. [22] Anna Deryabina and Larisa Bashmakova, “ Report on of essay the results of the GFATM second round HIV project in the Republic of essayer en ligne Kazakhstan,” June 2009, http://www.rcaids.kz/files/00000094.pdf (accessed July 16, 2015). HIV programs include MSM on essays in canada paper, and there is a MSM representative on the Country Coordinating Mechanism, the monitoring body for all Global Fund grants in essayer des lunettes gratuitement country. On Eros Bridges? However in a 2015 report, the Eurasian Coalition on essayer en ligne Male Health noted “the need to work with [MSM] is not recognized.” Eurasian Coalition on Male Health, “The Global Fund New Funding Model and Country Dialogue: Involvement of MSM and Transgender People in Eastern Europe and Central Asia,” 2015, http://ecomnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/ECOM-Country-Dialogue-Report-V2.pdf (accessed July 16, 2015). [23] Human Rights Watch interview with Nikolai B. (pseudonym), Almaty, April 9, 2015. [24] Human Rights Watch interview with Anya L. Disadvantages? (pseudonym), Almaty, March 20, 2015. [25] Human Rights Watch interview with Anara K. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 18, 2015. [26] Open Society Foundations, “License to Be Yourself: Laws and Advocacy for Legal Gender Recognition of Trans People,” May 2014, http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/reports/license-be-yourself (accessed July 8, 2015). [27] Human Rights Watch interview with Vadim K. En Ligne? (pseudonym), Astana, March 24, 2015.

[28] Human Rights Watch interview with Anya L. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 20, 2015. [29] Human Rights Watch interview with Slava N. (pseudonym), Astana, March 24, 2015. [30] Human Rights Watch interview with Vadim K. (pseudonym), Astana, March 24, 2015. [31] Order of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan, June 3, 2003, No. Numerical Solutions? 435, “On the Guidelines of Medical Investigation of People with Gender Identification Disorders,” http://www.shb-info.org/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/kazakhstan.pdf (accessed July 8, 2015). [32] Code on People’s Health and System of Healthcare of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2009, art. 88. [33] LGBT Organization Labrys (Kyrgyzstan) in cooperation with NGO Amulet (Kazakhstan), ILGA-Europe, and des lunettes, Sexual Rights Initiative, “Recommendations on Sexual Rights in Kazakhstan 7th session of Universal Periodic Review,” http://sexualrightsinitiative.com/wp-content/uploads/Kazakhstan-UPR-7.pdf (accessed July 16, 2015). [34] Decree of the Government of the disadvantages of essay, Republic of Kazakhstan No. 1484, December 7, 2011; Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, art.

88, clause 3. [36] Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Resolution 2048, Discrimination Against Transgender People in Europe , 2015, http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/X2H-Xref-ViewPDF.asp?FileID=21736lang=en (Accessed July 16, 2015). [37] The Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Gender Identity, Principle 3, http://www.yogyakartaprinciples.org/principles_en_principles.htm (accessed July 8, 2015). [38] United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, “Report on thesis Torture in Healthcare Settings,” February 1, 2013, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session22/A.HRC.22.53_English.pdf (accessed July 16, 2015). [41] Human Rights Watch interview with Olga V. (pseudonym), Karaganda, March 22, 2015. This reporter conducted a survey of journalists in Karaganda in des lunettes gratuitement 2012 on the occasion of the International Day Against Homophobia. She reports that 52 percent of her respondents said that the essays on picasso art, murders of LGBT people in des lunettes that city were “irrelevant” because “a couple of murders of sexual minorities does not mean we can talk about essays on picasso art discrimination against essayer gratuitement, the group.” In addition, 24 percent of respondents said LGBT people were “sick” and therefore could not be shown to children, and another 45 percent said they hold “mainly a negative opinion” of LGBT people. [42] The Bolashak (Future) national movement is a “national patriot’s republican movement” - not to thesis on metamaterial be confused with President Nazarbayev’s “Bolashak,” which is an international educational scholarships program. [43] For media coverage of the des lunettes gratuitement, Bolashak movement’s announcement of the roundtable to discuss the “need for the adoption of the law ‘On the prohibition of LGBT – propaganda,’” see: http://yvision.kz/post/428946 (accessed July 8, 2015). Essays By Robert Bridges? For a video clip of the essayer en ligne, event, including discussions between the hosts and some LGBT activists who courageously attended, see: http://flashvideo.rferl.org/Videoroot/Pangeavideo/2014/09/7/7f/7fd49c42-a50e-46e0-a934-ca89e1c69b2e_mobile.mp4 (accessed July 8, 2015).

[45] Human Rights Watch interview with Askar B. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 20, 2015. [46] For details of the multiple cases against Deti-404’s administrators, see: Human Rights Watch, “Russia: Court Hearing against LGBT Group,” April 3, 2015, http://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/02/russia-court-hearing-against-lgbt-group . [47] Human Rights Watch interview with Askar B. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 20, 2015. [49] Human Rights Watch interview with Ninel V. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 19, 2015. [50] The Human Rights Campaign has described the “Regnerus Study,” named for its author, the c3 coursework numerical solutions, sociologist Mark Regnerus, as follows: A large-scale, U.S. population-based study on the outcomes of young adults raised in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement various family structures, commissioned in on research papers 2010 by gratuitement, a social-conservative think tank called the Witherspoon Institute. The study’s intended goal – detailed in grant proposals, internal emails, and fundraising letters – was to debunk the widely accepted claim, bolstered by multiple sociology studies, that children do fine when raised by same-sex parents.

The study has been criticized for its flawed methodology; its suspect peer-review and publication process; and the involvement of the study’s ideologically motivated funders – an involvement that was initially concealed. Meanwhile, the study continues to be used as a political weapon against marriage and adoption rights for LGBT people all over the world. Human Rights Campaign, “Regenerus Fallout,” 2013, http://www.regnerusfallout.org/frequently-asked-questions (accessed May 5, 2015). In 2013 a Russian lawmaker cited the study while proposing a bill that would deny gay parents custody over their children. (See Associated Press, “Russian lawmaker proposes bill that would deny gay parents custody over children,” September 5, 2013, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/09/05/russian-lawmaker-proposes-bill-that-would-deny-gay-parents-custody-over .) Mark Regenerus has condemned the citation of his study for such purposes (See The Wire, “A Russian Lawmaker Is Misusing My Gay Parenting Study,” http://www.thewire.com/global/2013/09/russian-lawmaker-misusing-my-gay-parenting-study/69453/ .) [51] Human Rights Watch interview with Elena R. Thesis? (pseudonym), Astana, March 24, 2015. [52] Human Rights Watch interview with Anara K. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 18, 2015. [53] Sexual Rights Initiative and Labrys, “Report on the occasion of Kazakhstan’s Universal Period Review,” 2010, http://sexualrightsinitiative.com/wp-content/uploads/Kazakhstan-UPR-7.pdf . [54] Human Rights Watch interview with Tamara A. (pseudonym), Almaty, March 19, 2015.

[56] Human Rights Watch interview with Ninel V. (pseudonym), March 19, 2015. [57] Draft Laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan, “On Protecting Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and en ligne, Development,” January 2015, http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31249501 (accessed July 20, 2015), and “On Amendments and Additions to Several Legal Acts of the Republic of solutions Kazakhstan Concerning the Protection of Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and Development,” January 2015, http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31486605 (accessed July 20, 2015). [58] Human Rights Watch interview with Aliya C., Astana, March 24, 2015. [59] Human Rights Watch interview with Tamara A., Almaty, March 19, 2015. [60] Amnesty International, “Urgent Action: Kazakhstan - Stop LGBTI ‘Propaganda’ Legislation,” March 26, 2015, https://t.co/K8zUOY5KyC (accessed July 8, 2015). [61] International Partnership for Human Rights and Kazakhstan International Bureau for Human Rights and en ligne, Rule of Law, “Open letter to the International Olympic Committee: Speak out against bill threatening LGBTI expression in Kazakhstan,” April 16, 2015, http://www.iphronline.org/ioc-letter-on-kazakhstan-20150416.html (accessed July 8, 2015). [62] Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan, IV Section V Convocation, September 1, 2014, http://www.parlam.kz/ru/senate/Activity/OpenInfoDocument/3231?infoId=10 (accessed July 16, 2015).

[65] TengriNews, “The bill to ban the promotion of homosexuality will bring to Parliament before the end of the year,” June 18, 2015, http://tengrinews.kz/kazakhstan_news/zakonoproekt-zaprete-propagandyi-gomoseksualizma-vnesut-276407/ , (accessed June 18, 2015). [66] Federal Law of June 29, 2013 No. 135-FZ, “On Amendments to Article 5 of the Federal Law ‘On Protecting Children from history Information Harmful to their Health and Development,’” http://www.rg.ru/2013/02/04/koap-homo-site-dok.html (accessed October 2, 2014). The explanatory note of the anti-propaganda law in its bill form referred explicitly to: The promotion of homosexuality … carried out via the media as well as via the en ligne, active pursuit of research papers on research public activities which try to portray homosexuality as normal behavior. This is particularly dangerous for children and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, young people who are not able to on research take a critical approach to this avalanche of essayer en ligne gratuitement information with which they are bombarded on a daily basis. In view of this, it is essential first and foremost to protect the thesis, younger generation from gratuitement exposure to the promotion of homosexuality. “Putin signed a law banning gay propaganda to children [ - ],” RIA Novosti, June 30, 2013, http://ria.ru/politics/20130630/946660179.html (accessed September 15, 2014). [67] Human Rights Watch, “License to Harm: Violence and Harassment against LGBT People and Activists in Russia,” December 15, 2014, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2014/12/15/license-harm . 68 Council of Europe Venice Commission, Opinion on the issue of the prohibition of numerical solutions so-called “Propaganda of homosexuality” in the light of recent legislation in some member states of the Council of Europe, CDL-AD (2013) 022-e, June 18, 2013, http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL-AD(2013)022-e (accessed December 3, 2014). 69 United Nations Committee on the Rights of the essayer, Child, Concluding observations on of essay the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of the Russian Federation, CRC/C/RUS/CO/4-5, January 31, 2014, http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/RUS/CRC_C_RUS_CO_4-5_16305_E.pdf (accessed December 3, 2014).

[70] Letters on file with Human Rights Watch and in Annex I and II. [71] Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, July 3, 2014, entered into force January 1, 2015, art. 145. [72] Code of the essayer des lunettes gratuitement, Republic of essays by robert bridges Kazakhstan on des lunettes Public Health and the Healthcare System, September 18, 2009, as amended, March 7 , 2014 . [73] Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, March 31, 2010, “On Enacting Requirements for Health Status of Law-enforcement Servicemen,” order no. 132, registered by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of essays on picasso art Kazakhstan, April 15, 2010. [74] Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, November 21, 2001, “On the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Concept of essays history in canada Moral and gratuitement, Sex Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan,” enactment no. 1500. [75] National Human Rights Action Plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2009-2012, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/NHRA/Kazakhstan2009-2012.pdf (accessed July 8, 2015). Note that the English language version of Kazakhstan’s National Human Rights Action Plan 2009-2012 references ‘homosexuals’, however the Russian language version does not make such a reference. [76] International Covenant on history in canada Civil and Political Rights, art.

2.1. [77] Nicholas Toonen v. Essayer En Ligne Gratuitement? Australia , Human Rights Committee, 50th Sess., Case No. 488/1992, UN Doc. CCPR/c/50/D/488/1992. [78] The ICCPR states in article 26: “All persons are equal before the thesis on metamaterial, law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” [79] During its 2010 Universal Periodic Review, Kazakhstan rejected 7 of 102 recommendations. Numerical? One of the rejected recommendations, from France, was: “Join the declaration on gratuitement sexual orientation and gender identity, while noting with congratulations the decriminalization of homosexuality.” See http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/kazakhstan/session_7_-_february_2010/recommendationstokazakhstan2010.pdf . [80] For example, in its concluding comments on Kyrgyzstan in 1999, the Committee on solutions the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women condemned reports that lesbians were subject to essayer des lunettes punishment in Kyrgyzstan, and stated, “The Committee recommends that lesbianism be reconceptualized as a sexual orientation.” The Committee’s recommendation that lesbian identity be located under the history of hockey in canada, rubric of “sexual orientation” requires according it the discrimination protections demanded under international law.

See Report of the en ligne, Committee on the Elimination of essays on eros Discrimination against Women (Fifty-fourth session, 1999), U.N. En Ligne? Doc A/54/38 (Part I), May 4, 1999, p. 128. [81] Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of thesis International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, principle 2. [82] Yogyakarta Principles, principle 10. The Olympics and Gay Propaganda in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan: LGBT Community Living in Fear. Kazakhstan: Abusive Response to Oil Worker Strikes.

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8 days: Induction week will provide information to assist and support you during your transition into essays history of hockey in canada, your new environment, within Dubai and throughout your training. 13 days: safety emergency procedures training will provide you with the skills to ensure our aircraft and passengers remain safe at essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, all times. Covering Aircraft equipment, fire-fighting, in-flight emergencies and evacuation. 5 days: Group Medical training will equip you to art, be able to confidently manage any medical incident on-board. You’ll cover topics such as CPR, bleeding, burns, emergency childbirth and a variety of des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, medical conditions. 2 days: safeguarding tomorrow – Security training will provide you with guidelines, skills and techniques to prevent and numerical manage acts of unlawful interference, disruptive behaviour, hijacking and sabotage. 1 day: Image and uniform training will give you the essayer en ligne, skills and knowledge to c3 coursework numerical, project a professional image in line with the Emirates brand, You will cover uniform standards, skincare, make-up, hair care, nail care and a healthy lifestyle. 1 day: Are you ready to shine? Emirates is one of the des lunettes gratuitement, biggest stars in the sky. Only you can make it the brightest.

12 days Service training, 4 months On the Job learning and development and 3 days service Assessments to equip you with the knowledge and skills required to deliver ‘World’s best In-flight Experience.’ 8 days: Induction week will provide information to assist and support you during your transition to into your new environment, within Dubai and throughout your training. 13 days: safety emergency procedures training will provide you with the skills to ensure our aircraft and passengers remain safe at all times. Thesis? Covering Aircraft equipment, fire-fighting, in-flight emergencies and evacuation. 5 days: Group Medical training will equip you to be able to confidently manage any medical incident on-board. You’ll cover topics such as CPR, bleeding, burns, emergency childbirth and a variety of medical conditions. 2 days: safeguarding Tomorrow – Security training will provide you with guidelines, skills and techniques to prevent and manage acts of unlawful interference, disruptive behaviour, hijacking and sabotage. 1 day: Image and uniform training will give you the skills and knowledge to project a professional image in line with the Emirates brand, You will cover uniform standards, skincare, make-up, hair care, nail care and a healthy lifestyle. 1 day: Are you ready to shine? Emirates is one of the biggest stars in the sky. Only you can make it the brightest.

12 days Service training, 4 months On the Job learning and development and 3 days service Assessments to equip you with the knowledge and essayer en ligne gratuitement skills required to deliver ‘World’s best In-flight Experience.’ We’ve rolled out an updated application process for cabin crew positions where candidates are required to create their applications online and attend an online video interview. Due to the large volume of numerical, applications that we receive, only essayer des lunettes en ligne, shortlisted candidates will be invited for assessment days at various locations. What makes Emirates one of the world’s fastest-growing airline? It’s a combination of quality, innovating and going one step further for customers. We’re also confident in the future of the travel industry – we’ve been adding around four new destinations every year. Bridges? And now we’re adding one new aircraft every month. That’s what happens when you’re determined to des lunettes gratuitement, be the best. What are the opportunities for cabin crew?

It’s the international lifestyle, tax-free salary, free quality accommodation and our award-winning multicultural team. The travel benefits and training are amazing too. What makes the career path rewarding? Many of our middle and thesis senior managers started out as cabin crew, so it’s a great beginning if you’re determined to achieve something. Essayer Des Lunettes En Ligne Gratuitement? In the meantime, you’ll be working with people from 140 nationalities, building your skills and advancing your career – even becoming flight purser within five years or training others. How long are the contract and probation? In accordance with current Dubai Government regulations, the contract is thesis a three-year non-binding one, renewable with agreement by Emirates management and the crew member. The probationary period is six months. The number of annual leave hours relates to your job grade. It’ll be in your contract of essayer, employment. What makes Emirates the fastest-growing airline in bridges, the world?

From the outset, Emirates has been committed to quality and essayer des lunettes en ligne innovation and to exceed customer expectation. On Research? More than 400 international awards bear witness to our dedication to these core values. What are the opportunities for Cabin Crew in Emirates? Being based in Dubai, Emirates offers its Cabin Crew an international lifestyle, an attractive tax-free salary, free quality accommodation and en ligne gratuitement the opportunity to work with an award-winning multicultural team. Salaries for Cabin Crew are competitive and packages of attractive travel benefits and excellent professional development opportunities are available. Is this a rewarding career path and why? Working with Emirates will give you endless opportunities: to meet and work with people from over 120 nationalities; to increase your skills and rapidly advance your career. Currently, high performing Cabin Crew have been able to attain the position of Flight Purser within five years and essays history of hockey many have also become trainers in en ligne gratuitement, cabin service. Many people in middle and upper management joined the airline as Cabin Crew and now work in other departments. Opportunities abound: waiting for you to pursue them, based on performance of thesis on metamaterial, course!

How long is the contract and is it binding? In accordance with current Dubai Government regulations, the des lunettes gratuitement, contract is a three-year non-binding one, renewable with agreement by Emirates management and crew member. There is a probationary period of papers on research papers, six months commencing from the date of joining. What is the en ligne gratuitement, probationary period for company employment? For all positions, the probationary period is six months from the date of c3 coursework solutions, joining the company.

What is the annual leave policy of the company? All full-time employees are entitled to paid annual leave. The number of working hours of annual leave provided per calendar year is related to gratuitement, your job grade and bridges is specified in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, your contract of employment. What is the recruitment process like? Candidates are short-listed and undergo an initial screening.

Many will then be asked to participate in assessment exercises. Of Essay? Finally, those identified as having potential will be called for en ligne an interview. Candidates who fail to make it through the thesis on metamaterial, initial screening process may reapply after six months; those who are not successful after the interview may reapply after one year. What does Emirates look for in Cabin Crew? Irrespective of des lunettes gratuitement, nationality, we look for a positive attitude, confidence, flexibility, maturity, a friendly disposition, and importantly a genuine passion to help others and to provide quality service. As the job can be physically demanding, we also look for those with resilience and a determination to continually perform well.

Do you need previous experience as Cabin Crew? Previous experience in a customer service role would be of benefit but previous cabin crew experience is on research papers not required. Can I attend a Cabin Crew interview in any country where Emirates recruitment campaigns are being held? Yes. If Emirates is not conducting interviews in your home country, you may be invited to attend the selection process in a nearby country or you may choose to attend the Open Information Days as advertised. Should you choose to attend, expenses incurred will not be reimbursed. How many job applications does Emirates receive? How many Cabin Crew are working with Emirates at present? Emirates receives an average of 15,000 applications for Cabin Crew per des lunettes gratuitement, month. Over 13,000 Cabin Crew are currently working for the airline. If selected to join Emirates as Cabin Crew what medical tests are required?

Two pre-employment medical tests are required: one in your home country at your own expense and one upon arrival in research papers on research papers, Dubai which will be conducted at the Emirates Group Clinic by doctors qualified in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, aviation medicine. This is papers a legal requirement for all Emirates Crew. Do you get paid/compensated and des lunettes en ligne gratuitement are you provided with company accommodation while training? Your basic salary is calculated from the writing, first day of joining. Company accommodation is also provided upon your arrival in Dubai. What is involved in the training? Where does it take place? All Cabin Crew recruits go through an initial five-week training course in des lunettes, Dubai, conducted in English at a purpose-built crew training centre that is solutions part of the Emirates Aviation College. Training includes the des lunettes en ligne, practical and theoretical aspects of safety, first aid and inflight service on the various aircraft operated by Emirates. The trainees on each course are normally a rich cultural mix.

There are regular assessments with stringent pass marks for each module. Hence a high standard of performance and dedication is disadvantages writing required. Are you allocated flights as soon as you join training? You are given a roster on the day of your graduation at the end of your training. Initially, you will fly as supernumerary so that your performance can be observed and des lunettes feedback obtained in order to identify any further training needs prior to your first operational flight. When do you get a roster?

How many days off do you get in a month? Cabin Crew have a monthly roster and have approximately eight days off per month in Dubai. Cabin Crew promotions are based on assessment of on eros, performance. What are the career development opportunities within Emirates? Staff have first opportunity to apply for a vacant position as most of these are advertised internally before being advertised to outside applicants. Essayer Des Lunettes Gratuitement? Candidates interested in of essay, applying for any internal vacancy should meet the essayer en ligne, following requirements: Completion of one year in your current role (position/department). Essays Art? The minimum qualifications and experience required for the advertised position.

The support of your line manager. Emirates provides all Cabin Crew with a comprehensive package for medical and dental services at the designated Emirates Clinics. Does Emirates provide any insurance cover? All Cabin Crew are insured on a 24-hour worldwide basis under life insurance and personal accident insurance policies. The company’s policy on des lunettes en ligne gratuitement insurance is detailed in The Emirates Group Employee Handbook, which is issued to every employee upon joining the company. Does Emirates offer a pension scheme?

Emirates provides a non-contributory end of service benefit (EOSB) (a lump sum of of hockey, money assessed according to salary scale) on completion of the term of your contract. What is the pay structure/allowance? Your pay is made up of three components: a fixed basic salary, an hourly pay for operated flights and an overseas allowance. Flying pay on an hourly basis - AED55 paid between chocks off and chocks on. Flying pay is paid in the month following accrual. Meal allowances are paid in the currency of the country in essayer des lunettes gratuitement, which a night stop is made. The company provides free transport to and from the airport and hotel accommodation. When may I apply for concessional travel? Rebate travel concessions apply after six months’ service. An unlimited number of ID90 subload tickets and ID50 firm tickets on Emirates only are available for yourself. Limited concessionary travel facilities are available for immediate family members.

How much leave will I be entitled to? Cabin Crew are entitled to research papers on research papers, 30 calendar days’ leave per year based on availability of en ligne gratuitement, leave slots. One firm annual leave ticket is provided free of charge to research papers on research papers, your country of origin. After three years of service this may be taken to any destination on the Emirates network. How often how soon can I go home?

All employees are on probation for essayer gratuitement the first six months of their service. C3 Coursework Numerical Solutions? They are, therefore, eligible for essayer des lunettes gratuitement leave after the c3 coursework, probation period. We fly to over 120 destinations and you could be rostered to your home country, based on operational requirements. What is the Exchange Rate Protection scheme? UAE-based expatriate employees, irrespective of nationality, grade or position, are covered by the Exchange Rate Protection (ERP) scheme, unless they are from the USA or any country where the currency is fixed against the US dollar.

The ERP scheme is intended to essayer, provide reasonable protection if you are adversely affected by exchange rate fluctuations in the currency of numerical, your home country or the place of your permanent residence. Your ERP currency will be given as per the country of your Annual Leave Destination, and once your ERP is determined it can never be changed. Under the ERP Scheme, 50 per cent of the net basic salary received each month is protected up to a maximum of 15 per cent. If the essayer, company achieves its profit target, employees receive a profit share payment. The company’s financial year runs from 1st April to 31st March the papers, following year.

The company announces its results – and any profit share to be made - in April for the financial year just ended. The profit share is paid in May. The amount varies from year to des lunettes, year and has ranged from two to on eros bridges, 14 weeks of basic salary. To qualify for the full profit share, you must have been employed for the complete period, 1st April to 31st March. If you joined after the des lunettes en ligne, 31st March but before 30th September, you would be entitled to a pro rata amount. If you joined after 30th September, you will have to wait until the next profit share. What is accommodation like and is it expensive? Emirates provides shared furnished air conditioned accommodation free of charge. There are more than 50 buildings in various locations throughout Dubai that you could be placed in. Each apartment block has leisure facilities. Two/three colleagues (same gender) share a two/three bedroom apartment and history each have their own bedroom but share the kitchen and the living area.

Two people may have to share a second bathroom in some three-bedroom apartments. Can my family come to visit and stay with me in company accommodation? Family members can stay in your apartment in accordance with the Emirates accommodation regulations. Can different genders share accommodation? Dubai is an en ligne gratuitement Islamic country.

Men and women cannot share accommodation unless they are married. What is Dubai like as a lifestyle destination? From a country that relied on on picasso pearl diving, Dubai has now developed into an international tourism and regional business hub. It is des lunettes en ligne a modern cosmopolitan city where people of many cultures and religious backgrounds live and bridges work in harmony. Dubai offers many advantages and prides itself on being one of the des lunettes en ligne, most exciting cities in the world. Dubai is a city of contrast, a land where the old and the new, traditional and solutions modern, east and west blend seamlessly to des lunettes gratuitement, produce a fascinating, mysterious, exciting place with a distinct personality all of its own. There is an endless variety of superb restaurants and sports and leisure facilities catering for all tastes. The salary you receive from Emirates is tax free. Do I need to open a UAE bank account? Yes, because your salary is paid monthly in UAE dirhams.

What is the procedure for disadvantages of essay writing obtaining a UAE driving licence? Obtaining a UAE driving licence and the costs involved are your responsibility. There many countries which have an agreement with the UAE whereby you can convert your existing driving licence to a UAE driving licence. If you are unable to essayer des lunettes gratuitement, convert your existing driving licence into a UAE driving licence, then you will have to undergo driving tests conducted by Dubai Police. There are many private driving schools in on metamaterial, Dubai and essayer en ligne gratuitement you can register with one of disadvantages, them for driving lessons. Do you need another language? What is the predominantly spoken language? In Dubai, Arabic and des lunettes English are widely spoken. Candidates need fluency in spoken and written English. Essays On Eros? Fluency in another language is an advantage.

There are a number of language institutions in essayer gratuitement, Dubai if you wish to c3 coursework, learn another language. Do I have to hold certified logbooks? It is a requirement that the candidate provide complete certified logbook records when they are invited for en ligne gratuitement the selection process. It is unacceptable to have some years missing, misplaced or otherwise. Prior to essays history of hockey in canada, joining, all pilots must provide certified evidence of hours flown. This can either be a stamp in their logbook from their Fleet Manager/Chief Pilot verifying their hours flown or a stamped original letter from the record/fleet department of essayer des lunettes en ligne, their respective airline/authority. Does Emirates intend to art, recruit direct entry Captains? Please refer to our Pilot Vacancies page for current opportunities. How does the Emirates training bond apply?

All First Officers sign a training bond for en ligne a period of 5 years (US$42,000) on a decreasing pro-rata basis. When can I expect to be upgraded to Captain? The minimum requirements for upgrade to Command are: a. Possession of a valid UAE ATPL. b. 6,000 hours Total Time (Note 1, Note 2). c. Research Papers On Research Papers? 2,500 hours Emirates operating time and 3 years’ service in Emirates, on any fleet (Note 2). d. Four satisfactory PPCs in Emirates on any aircraft type. e. Des Lunettes En Ligne? Two satisfactory manual handling simulator sessions on any Emirates aircraft type. f. 1000 hours Emirates operating time on the fleet on which the upgrade is essays on eros by robert bridges planned. g. Two satisfactory PPCs on the fleet in which the upgrade is planned (Note 2). The minimum requirements for essayer upgrade to history, Command on the Airbus A380: Note 1: Total Time is defined as all flying as P1 and/or P2, excluding single and multi-engine piston. Note 2: No alleviations of essayer des lunettes en ligne, SFI, non-EK P3, FEO, or any other credits or reductions are allowed to any hours criteria. What is the duration of the contract of employment? Unless stated otherwise, the contract of papers on research, employment is permanent and essayer des lunettes open (i.e. no fixed duration). If I am selected how is essays on picasso art my Fleet type decided? Whilst past experience and candidate’s preference is essayer des lunettes gratuitement taken into account, this will not always determine the fleet type as allocation is based solely on Emirates’ operational requirements. When Emirates’ operational requirements deem it necessary to transfer between fleets you can express your interest or volunteer for on picasso art the transfer as it will be based on seniority.

Can I apply for Emirates Cadet program? The current Emirates Cadet Program is available for essayer gratuitement U.A.E. Essays On Picasso? nationals only. The probation period is six months commencing from your date of joining. How does the rostering system work? The rostering system is essayer a rotating cycle, so each group becomes the top priority for bidding (favourite flights, etc.) every 5 months. Within the groups there is a seniority list, however when you are in the top most group, you have a strong chance of receiving the duties you request. Bid preferences include: Destination, Regions, Days off, requesting pairing length, check-in time, etc.

Reserve/standby is usually rostered for each group every 10 months or there about for duration of 35 days which will be allocated in the bottom bid groups. How long are the papers, flight duties/sectors in Emirates? The sectors range from 50 minutes to 17 hours. Layover trips generally range from 24 hours to essayer, 72 hours. In Canada? The maximum multi-stop layover duty is 9 days.

What happens if I am on holiday and can’t complete my bid for the next month? The system allows you to place a ‘standing’ bid, which will be registered in the system and en ligne gratuitement will be the one selected if no monthly bid is made. How long does the interview process for pilot recruitment take? As per current processes, the interview is generally held over 4 days in Dubai. We have recently introduced a pre-selection program in certain locations around the art, world which is essayer gratuitement designed to research, cover some aspects of the selection and shorten the time required for the remaining assessment conducted in des lunettes, Dubai. The major part of the recruitment process is disadvantages held in essayer, Dubai. Research Papers? Pre-selection is now available overseas for the benefit of candidates who cannot take much time off work. It may include a SIM assessment, psychometric testing and Advanced Compass modules.

When do we get pay rises? Are annual increments guaranteed? The Company reviews salaries on an annual basis and may award pilots a ‘step rise’ in salary or a percentage increase, subject to satisfactory performance, however this payment is essayer gratuitement not contractual. If the Company reaches its profit target, employees receive a profit share payment in May. Art? The amount varies from year to year and has ranged from 2-14 weeks of gratuitement, basic salary. All employees must be employed for the complete period 1st April – 31st March in the preceding year to c3 coursework solutions, be eligible for the full profit share payment. If you join after the des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, 31st March and before 30th September you are entitled to a pro rata amount. If you join after 30th September you will have to wait until the end of next financial year to be eligible for the profit share. What is on research papers “Exchange Rate Protection” scheme?

Expatriate pilots irrespective of nationality, grade or position are covered by the Exchange Rate Protection (ERP) scheme (except for the USA). The ERP scheme is intended to provide you reasonable protection if you are adversely affected by exchange rate fluctuations to the currency of your home country. Under the ERP Scheme, 50% of the net basic salary received each month is protected. The salary you receive from Emirates is tax free. You may have to essayer des lunettes en ligne, check the taxation laws in your home country of residence for essays any possible income taxation. Our alternative to the pension scheme is the Provident Fund.

Full details of the scheme are provided on joining the company. A = the essayer gratuitement, amount that the company contributes-12% of basic salary B = Compulsory amount for of essay writing employee 5% of essayer gratuitement, monthly basic salary C = voluntary additional contributions made by employee. Eligibility for payout of the Provident fund on leaving Emirates is linked to your length of service. You will receive the market value of your contributions to essays, the Account B and C fund, but will need to have completed 7 years’ service to be entitled to the full 100% of the market value of Account A, or 5-7 years to be entitled to 75% of Emirates contributions to Account A. For service periods of less than 5 years you are entitled to End of Service Benefit payments. The fund is linked to the Stock Market (Global Stock Market). The fund is managed by a Provident Scheme Officer. Should you wish to change the investment of your funds (based on essayer en ligne gratuitement fluctuations on essays by robert the Stock Market) you may make changes up to 6 times per year free of charge. You get 2 free consultations per year and can monitor your accounts online.

Can I take the money from the gratuitement, company and invest it myself? At the present time this option is not available. Do I need to research papers on research, open a UAE bank account? Yes, as your salary is essayer en ligne gratuitement paid monthly in local currency. Do I get transportation allowance? No, the company provides free transportation to and from research papers, work. Do I have to pay to travel to Dubai for my interview?

We provide invited candidates with a return Economy class ticket (upgradable to Business) to Dubai from their nearest destination on the Emirates network. Does the education allowance for our children cover all costs? We contribute tuition and transport fees for 3 children, ages 4-19. Parents can choose which school they prefer for their children, and some schools may cost more than the allowance covers. Who do I call or email to get a ruling on whether a pre-existing conditions is covered or not by the medical scheme? The final decision is taken by our Chief Medical Officer and you will be advised before joining.

As with all insurance companies, there is an exclusion list and essayer des lunettes gratuitement a pre-existing condition is normally excluded for on metamaterial the first 2 years of des lunettes, employment. You can email pilot.recruitment@emirates.com or following the selection programme contact your Recruitment Specialist. Yes, when outside of of essay writing, clinic hours you can go to the emergency section in selected hospitals that will treat you without any payment required upon essayer en ligne presenting your Emirates ID card. Is there an ambulance service here? Yes, through the government hospitals and through private hospitals. What do I do if a member of my family is seriously injured? There are excellent Accident and Emergency services (AE) through the private hospitals namely: Welcare Hospital, American Hospital, with which Emirates has direct billing service. Is there a pre joining medical for numerical solutions families?

No, but families will be required to submit a declaration of health. It is a requirement for en ligne gratuitement the Company medical scheme. Numerical Solutions? All persons joining the scheme must complete a medical before joining. They will also be required to attend an initial dental check upon joining which would assess any pre-existing conditions. If I fail my pre-joining medical, will I be told the reason? This is at the discretion of the Company.

Why are the HIV/Hepatitis B and TB tests required? The above tests are a government requirement in order to be granted a residence visa. A positive result will lead to termination of employment and deportation. What if I am sick for more than 15 days? As stated in des lunettes, the contract, for absence due to sickness/accident or industrial injury the following applies: Absence due to incapacity must be supported by a medical certificate and issued by a company doctor (after completion of a 6 month notice period) full basic salary will be paid for up to 52 weeks. Am I covered by essays of hockey in canada Emirates for essayer loss of license? Yes, full details can be found in the Employee Handbook on joining the company. The Company insures all Flight Crew as listed below, against permanent loss of licence arising from accident or sickness: All ages up to completion of 61st year 3 annual basic salaries.

Ages 62 to 63 years 2 annual basic salaries. Ages 63 to 64 years 1 annual basic salary. Ages 64 and above Nil. Annual basic salary means the monthly basic salary excluding all allowances. If loss of license is due to a ‘pre-existing condition' it is not covered by this insurance. There are various private schemes available which you can arrange, or you may wish to writing, continue with an existing coverage that you have in your own country. Do I have to get a sick note if I go sick for a flight?

No. Emirates currently operate a ‘self-certification’ system whereby the flight crew can call sick for essayer en ligne gratuitement a flight without a visit to on metamaterial, the clinic. Essayer Gratuitement? Restrictions and conditions apply to this system and essays bridges full details will be made available to you on joining the company. How many days off will I get in essayer en ligne gratuitement, a month? You will be entitled to on picasso art, a minimum of 8 days off per month.

If my family remains in my home country, is essayer des lunettes gratuitement it possible for me to on picasso, commute? Emirates does not support or condone the commuting of Flight Crew. Is it possible to leave Dubai when I have days off? You may leave Dubai when you have days off, all you have to do is to fill the “away from base” form on the crew portal so the company know your location. You are also required to provide a contact telephone number and address. How much leave will I be entitled to and how do I apply for leave? You will be entitled to 42 days leave per essayer en ligne, year.

Primary Leave, which must be from 21-28 days in essays, duration, is allocated by essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a bidding system through the Flight Crew Portal; allocation is of essay dependent on en ligne gratuitement when leave was taken in the previous year and on of essay fleet seniority. Am I entitled to take any leave during the probation period (first 6 months)? No. En Ligne? Leave requests will not be authorized during the probation period. Special cases will be looked into and considered on a one to one basis. When do my staff travel benefits start? Travel concessions apply after 6 months service for 90% (Cat A) standby tickets and 50% (Cat C) firm ticket from the date of joining. Stopover allowances apply at all layover locations and are paid in local currency. What concessional travel do I receive for my family?

Single staff = Mother, Father, Brother, Sister. - Married = Mother, Father, Brother, Sister, mother-in-law, father-in-law. Their annual entitlement is unlimited firm tickets (ID50%) and 2 x ID90% sub load ticket on Emirates. In addition, a wider range of relatives are entitled to a max. of 10 firm (ID50%) tickets per year. Your spouse and children up to age 21 (or 23 if in full time education) are entitled to unlimited concessional tickets. What class of Cabin am I entitled to? Captains are eligible for on metamaterial Business Class travel with upgrade to First Class on a space available basis at the time of en ligne gratuitement, departure when traveling on on picasso Emirates services. First Officers are eligible for Economy Class travel with upgrade to essayer gratuitement, Business Class on a space available basis at the time of essays, departure when traveling on Emirates services. However children under 13 are not eligible for essayer des lunettes gratuitement the upgrade. If my application is short listed, is it possible to research papers, defer attendance in des lunettes gratuitement, the Selection Program? You may contact Pilot Recruitment via email on pilot.recruitment@emirates.com to advise us if you wish your application to be considered at a later date. If, however you have been scheduled to attend an interview which you initially accept and later decline with less than one week’s notice, your application may be closed, with no opportunity to re-apply at a later date.

If I am selected and have a bond with my current airline, will Emirates pay the remainder of the bond? The payment of an disadvantages outstanding bond amount from a previous employer is the responsibility of the individual. If I am not successful in the Selection Program, is it possible to en ligne, reapply? Yes, you can reapply after a period of 24 months. Where in Dubai can I expect to be accommodated? (Location) The location is subject to availability at essays on eros bridges, the time of joining. But a request could always be placed. What are my Accommodation entitlements as First Officer?

As a single or married First Officer without children you are entitled to either furnished or unfurnished two or three bedroom company apartment OR if married with dependent children who are residing in Dubai you will be entitled to either furnished or unfurnished company villa OR in both cases the essayer gratuitement, Accommodation Allowance of DHS 159,840 pa. Upon upgrade to Captain your entitlement will be as below. What are my Accommodation entitlements as Captain? As a Captain you are entitled to either furnished or unfurnished three or four bedroom company villa regardless of essays history, marital status/children or Accommodation Allowance of essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, DHS 179,400 pa. What should I expect to find in my accommodation when I arrive? Should you choose the furnished option, your accommodation will be furnished with living/dining room/bedroom furniture with curtains and lamps provided. We also provide a ‘starter pack’ in all company accommodation which includes linen, kitchen items and crockery. During the first week of joining the company you will receive AED 3,300 to purchase supplementary items. Thesis? You will be issued with a list of items in the starter pack with your contract.

The cost of des lunettes gratuitement, furniture/starter pack, which is valued at AED 45,000, is amortized in essays of hockey, equal monthly amounts over en ligne gratuitement a period of disadvantages of essay, 5 years. Essayer Des Lunettes Gratuitement? If an on research papers employee leaves the company before the value of the furnishings allowance have been fully amortized, the employee will repay the company the unamortized value of the furnishings. Gratuitement? You may not return the c3 coursework solutions, company furniture in lieu of any outstanding unamortized amount. The starter pack and supplementary allowance are not given to those selecting the Accommodation Allowance option or the unfurnished option. Some landlords (apartment accommodation) do not allow any pets.

However, a special request may be made prior to joining (subject to des lunettes, availability). You will be required to advise Emirates in essays on eros, advance if you are planning to des lunettes, bring a pet with you, and you have to make sure that your pets have a government health certificate and the original vaccination certificate from your country of origin; then you will have to apply for an import permit that lasts for one month. Art? Then you can start the shipping procedure. Can I decorate the walls of my villa/apartment? You may choose to change the colours, however when you are leaving the premises, it is your responsibility to leave the accommodation in its original condition and colour, to avoid charges. Can I opt-out of the Emirates Housing Scheme any time and take the money to sort out my own accommodation? If you want to opt-out of company accommodation you must apply for permission giving 3 months’ notice to essayer en ligne, draw the Accommodation Allowance in writing, before making any commitment to lease or purchase alternative accommodation. Please note that if you opt for the Accommodation Allowance, you will be liable to pay the costs of electricity, water supply and municipality charges and on metamaterial you will not be able to change back to company accommodation. What television system is used here? NTSC or PAL?

It is a PAL system. There are many companies offering different packages for des lunettes gratuitement satellite TV channels, e.g. Essays On Eros? Orbit, Star TV, Showtime or Firstnet. Packages vary, offering emphasis on sports, children’s channels, UK or US channels, etc. I am entitled to an apartment but I want to live in a villa, is this possible? No, as you get what you are entitled to. However, on upgrade to Captain and change of family status (i.e. when you have children residing with you in Dubai) you will be entitled to essayer des lunettes en ligne, a villa. Another option is to opt out of company accommodation and use your allowance to rent a villa. Can I choose the colours of my soft furnishings? Unfortunately not as the company furniture comes in a standard design.

Can my friends and essays on eros by robert bridges relatives who come to visit me stay at my villa? Yes, they can, as this is your place. If you reside in an apartment, you are required to notify the building security (if company provided accommodation). Does Emirates insure my possessions in the house or must I do that? Emirates do not provide insurance neither for the house nor for your personal belongings, but you can use the insurance company that Emirates deals with so you get the essayer en ligne, best insurance deal. Is there an Emirates club I can join? If so, how much does it cost? There is a pilot club called Emirates Pilot Club that costs DHS 75 per pilot and DHS 150 per couple per on metamaterial, month.

The membership gives you a wide choice of health clubs that you can use for free or at des lunettes gratuitement, a very low cost, and a choice of restaurants with very good discounts. You will have to check the availability of the offers at the time. Is it easy to hire a home assistant? Yes. Numerical Solutions? It is possible to use an agency to employ a domestic worker. Essayer? For visas fill in a visa form and submit the documents to Emirates HR service centre and they will direct you - with the next steps. This employee will be under your sponsorship and you will have to papers on research, pay all fees incurred. How much do you have to pay a home assistant? It depends on the individual’s nationality and you must adhere to the government requirements of minimum salary and annual leave entitlements. (Please note some governments stipulate a minimum salary for their citizens employed overseas). Can we hire a home assistant and des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a driver?

Sponsoring only one domestic help is the norm. If you wish to essays by robert, sponsor more than one, approval has to be obtained case by case basis only. Can single pilots sponsor home help of des lunettes, the opposite sex? Single pilots can only sponsor home assistants of the same sex. There are many cleaning companies that provide home help by by robert bridges the hour and the prices are very reasonable.

Who pays my electricity, water and telephone bills? Emirates will pay the costs of electricity, water supply and municipality taxes (if the employee resides in company accommodation) up to an amount of essayer en ligne, 32,000 AED annually. The local calls to of hockey, land lines are free of essayer des lunettes gratuitement, charge and the company will provide a telephone allowance. If I am selected as an Emirates pilot, can I live in essays history of hockey in canada, a city of my choice? All our pilots are based in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Dubai, and accommodation in Dubai is provided by Emirates. If I am selected, where will I live in numerical, Dubai? We provide accommodation in Dubai for all our pilots. Single pilots are provided a 2 bedroom apartment, and married pilots without children a 3 bedroom apartment. Essayer En Ligne Gratuitement? Married pilots with children who still live with them are provided a villa.

Alternatively, Emirates provides an papers papers accommodation allowance and this can be used to rent an apartment or villa to suit personal preferences. Is there a waiting list for schools? Yes, for some schools there is en ligne a waiting list and in some cases the list is quite long. It is on research entirely your responsibility to essayer des lunettes, find a school place for your child. We will supply you with a list of bridges, schools in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Dubai with all their contact numbers. What if my children do not speak English? What school will they get in?

There are 3 schools, at least that, you can enrol your children in if they do not speak English. Emirates International School /Dubai International Academy /Dubai American Academy. Is there a school bus or do we have to on eros by robert, drive our children to school? Some schools operate transport, others don’t. Transport allowance is covered by the education support scheme.

Do I get Education Support Allowance? Yes, support allowances (for up to des lunettes gratuitement, 3 children) are as follows: Primary School AED 40,000 maximum per on picasso, child (Emirates pay 100% of the first AED 20,000 and essayer des lunettes gratuitement 90% of the balance, up to on picasso art, a limit of AED 40,000 per academic year). Secondary School AED 60,000 per child (Emirates pay 100% of the en ligne, first AED 30,000 and 90% of the essays in canada, balance, up to essayer des lunettes en ligne, a limit of AED 60,000 per academic year) Can I also get this allowance if my children study overseas?

If my children go away to school do I get the essays of hockey in canada, full allowance to do with it as I wish or must I get the school to bill Emirates? What time does school start and finish? The school year starts in the beginning of September and finishes in the end of June with two weeks break between the end of December to mid-January and en ligne end of March to mid-April and the timings are approximately 0745am to 1530pm. Can I bring my children to start school halfway through the year? If the school is prepared to numerical, offer a place to your child then they may start during the school year. However a child cannot enter after the 30th April each year as the school year ends in June.

Is there any crime in the schools such as drugs? Generally the schools are well disciplined and a crime is an individual act that is tolerated by neither the school nor the national authority. Most schools are virtually crime free. If I travel to essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Dubai alone initially, can my spouse join me as soon as my visa is disadvantages of essay issued? It will take up to 10 working days to process your spouse’s visa once yours is processed. Can my spouse travel with me at the same time of joining? Yes, your spouse can enter the UAE on en ligne gratuitement transit visa at research, your expense. The transit visa is des lunettes gratuitement then converted to thesis on metamaterial, a residency visa at a cost of approximately 1000 AED or a return flight. Who pays for the visas for my spouse and children? visa is issued, there is a requirement to pay the cost of transferring the visa from visit to residence type, or they may be required to exit the des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, country while the disadvantages writing, visa is being processed.

You will be responsible for paying the cost of transfer of the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, visa or the cost of the tickets if they arrive before the thesis on metamaterial, visa is processed. Your family will be provided with a joining ticket once their visas have been approved. (Please note Emirates covers the costs for up to three children). Yes, most employment agencies in Dubai have websites, where your spouse can view vacancies and register his/her CV. Can my spouse start his/her own business here? Who would be his/her sponsor? Yes. He/she is likely to des lunettes en ligne, require a ‘local’ sponsor (a UAE national), however this is not always necessary as there is a free zone when one can open their business.

Can I share accommodation with my partner if we are not married? According to the UAE laws, you are not allowed to reside in the same accommodation on on picasso a permanent basis with a person from the opposite sex if you are not married. You may apply for an application letter through our Employee Service Centre on the 2nd Floor (Atrium level) of the Emirates Group Headquarters Building and then visit a liquor outlet to submit your application form. Can I convert my driver’s license to UAE or must I take a test? There is a list of countries that can convert their driving license including most European, North American, Australasian and GCC countries. If not on this list, a test is required.

Please check with Recruitment prior to joining. What is the essayer en ligne gratuitement, car loan that Emirates offer and what is the on metamaterial, cost of the car insurance? We offer a Dhs 70,000 interest free car loan which must be paid back on a monthly basis (deducted from your salary). The maximum repayment period is over 48 months. You may apply for the loan as soon as you join the company.

It is advisable to bring a ‘No Claims’ letter from your previous Insurance Company as you may be entitled to a discount if you provide such a letter. Requesting the car loan from Emirates requires you to undertake car insurance with Royal Sun Insurance and you are eligible for an employee discount. Are there restrictions on en ligne women driving in UAE? There are no restrictions on women driving here; they must possess a UAE license. Are there restrictions generally on women clothing, going out of hockey in canada, alone? In general women are treated with great respect here and there is no restriction on clothing (however situational awareness must be exercised in certain parts of town). It is des lunettes en ligne much westernised here and life for females is writing comfortable. If I am a Muslim am I allowed to essayer en ligne, apply for essays of hockey a liquor license? According to the UAE law, Muslims cannot apply for a liquor license. If you declare you are of no religion or an atheist, you will also not be permitted to obtain a liquor license.

Drugs are strictly against the law. There are severe penalties for those found to be either taking drugs, or possessing drugs. Compared to other cities there is very little crime in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, Dubai, however common sense and thesis precaution are advised. House burglaries and petty theft do occur. Will you help transfer my personal belongings to Dubai? You will be provided a free freight allowance of essayer en ligne gratuitement, 100 kgs, and your spouse can claim an additional 100 kgs. Each child in your family will also be entitled to a free allowance of 25 kgs.

You may use your furniture allowance towards shipping costs as well should you wish to thesis, ship your furniture from your home country. What are the criteria for applying for des lunettes en ligne gratuitement a job? Must hold a valid UAE passport Must have good command of both written and verbal English Must hold Khalasat Al Qaid or Marsoom Must hold UAE National Identity Card. On the Job Training. This applies to roles where the candidate is given a training period (x-1). The salary will be lower than the proposed job grade until the trainee completes his or her OJT. Firstly, a trainee is chosen for an appropriate job (through the Recruitment Team) The trainee then joins the company The trainees attends a National Induction Programme A Development Plan is set A tripartite meeting is held with the trainee and their line manager Course Nominations Follow-up tripartite meeting. What does the essays, Career Development Unit do? After you complete the training period, you will meet the a member of the unit to discuss your interests and career aspirations. The unit member meets your line manager for feedback.

Agreement is made on your development needs A development plan is set. The unit member follows up on your progress to ensure that everything is des lunettes en ligne gratuitement working out as planned. What is the procedure for license conversion as per GCAA in Dubai? All information pertaining to license conversion, eligibility and the documentation required can be found on the following website: www.gcaa.ae. What are the accommodation options available for papers Licensed Aircraft Engineers in Dubai? – Company accommodation and furnishings (up to Dhs30,000, depending on des lunettes en ligne gratuitement size of numerical solutions, accommodation and essayer en ligne gratuitement items provided by the landlord) – Dhs 3,300 on joining to thesis, purchase supplementary items. – Dhs 30,000 furnishing allowance. – No additional allowances. – No temporary accommodation.

–Dhs 119,460 utilities allowance. –Dhs 30,000 furnishing allowance. – No additional allowances. – Up to 3 months' temporary accommodation. – Temporary accommodation does not have starter pack items (e.g. bedding, towels, cutlery etc). – New joiners may order a starter pack. All Licensed Aircraft Engineers will be asked to choose from the above options at the time of joining.

How much can I carry as my excess baggage at the time of joining? On joining, the company will reimburse the gratuitement, cost of unaccompanied shipping of personal effects up to c3 coursework, 50-100 kg for the spouse, depending on essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement your grade, plus 25kg per child up to a maximum of three children under 19. The costs will be reimbursed on presentation of receipted invoices. What class of travel am I eligible for? If you are a Licensed Aircraft Engineer, you will be eligible to travel on economy/upgradeable to business class on your Annual Leave ticket. However, children under the age of 16 years are not eligible for an upgrade. Will Emirates assist me in obtaining Family Visa? Emirates acts as a sponsor for papers on research papers the employee and essayer en ligne provides a three-year residence visa/work permit, which is renewable. Once the employment visa is stamped in c3 coursework numerical, your passport, you can act as a sponsor for family (spouse and children). We provide assistance in processing family visas.

What is the process for applying for family visas? You must provide attested marriage certificate, passport copies and photographs of the en ligne, dependents. It takes around three-to-four weeks generally to process the family visa and once the essays history of hockey in canada, visa is processed, your family can travel to Dubai on des lunettes gratuitement joining ticket. What is the annual leave policy of the company? All full-time employees are entitled to generous paid annual leave in comparison to most other companies. The number of working hours of annual leave provided per calendar year is related to your job grade and is specified in your contract of employment. What are the career development opportunities within Emirates? Staff have first opportunity to apply for research papers a vacant position as most of these are advertised internally before being advertised to outside applicants. Candidates interested in applying for any internal vacancy should meet the following requirements: Completion of en ligne, one year in your current role (position/department); The minimum qualifications and on research papers experience required for the advertised position; The support of your line manager.

What is the en ligne gratuitement, probationary period for company employment? For all positions, the probationary period is disadvantages six months from the date of joining the company. What is en ligne “Exchange rate protection” scheme? UAE-based expatriate employees, irrespective of nationality, grade or position, are covered by the Exchange Rate Protection (ERP) scheme, unless they are from the USA or any country where the c3 coursework solutions, currency is fixed against the US dollar. The ERP scheme is intended to essayer des lunettes gratuitement, provide reasonable protection if you are adversely affected by exchange rate fluctuations in the currency of your home country or the place of your permanent residence.

Your ERP currency will be given as per the country of your Annual Leave Destination, and once your ERP is determined it can never be changed. Under the essays in canada, ERP Scheme, 50 per cent of the net basic salary received each month is protected up to a maximum of 15 per cent. If the company achieves its profit target, employees receive a profit share payment. The company’s financial year runs from 1st April to 31st March the following year. The company announces its results – and any profit share to be given - in April for the financial year just ended.

The profit share is paid in May. The amount varies from des lunettes, year to year; in the past, it has ranged from two to 14 weeks of basic salary. To qualify for the full profit share, you must have been employed for the complete period, 1st April to 31st March. If you joined after the 31st March but before 30th September, you would be entitled to essays on eros bridges, a pro essayer, rata amount. If you joined after 30th September, you will have to wait until the next profit share. The salary you receive from Emirates is tax-free. Do I need to c3 coursework numerical, open a UAE bank account? Yes - this is advised and will be explaine dduring your Onboarding experience and they will also provide details of recommended Banks. What is the procedure for obtaining a UAE Driving License? Obtaining a UAE driving licence and the costs involved are your responsibility.

Many countries have an agreement with the essayer des lunettes gratuitement, UAE under which you can convert your existing driving licence to a UAE driving licence. If you are unable to convert your existing driving licence into a UAE driving licence, then you will have to take driving tests conducted by Dubai Police. There are many private driving schools in Dubai and you can register with one of them for driving lessons. What is the Education Allowance Policy for essays on eros by robert bridges children? Education Support Allowance (ESA) is a contribution made by Emirates towards the school fees of employees’ children (up to essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, a maximum of three children below the age of 19 years). ESA for tuition fees will apply on c3 coursework numerical an annual basis using the academic year from 1st September to 31st August as applied in Dubai.

ESA will be calculated on en ligne a pro-rata basis from the month of essays by robert, joining, provided other policy criteria are fulfilled. The ESA will operate on gratuitement the following basis: Primary Schools If the invoiced school tuition fees are below Dhs 16,000 per annum, the company will reimburse 100 per cent of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees. If the invoiced school tuition fees are above Dhs 16,000 per annum, the company will reimburse 100 per of essay writing, cent of the first Dhs 16,000 and essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement 90 per cent of the remainder of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees, subject to a maximum overall reimbursement of Dhs 32,000 per disadvantages writing, annum. Secondary Schools If the invoiced school tuition fees are below Dhs 25,000 per annum, the company will reimburse 100 per cent of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees. Gratuitement? If the invoiced school tuition fees are above Dhs 25,000 per annum, the disadvantages of essay, company will reimburse 100 per cent of the first Dhs 25,000 and 90 per cent of the remainder of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees, subject to a maximum overall reimbursement of Dhs 50,000 per annum. Will the education support allowance include registration and admission fees as well?

A registration fee up to a maximum of Dhs 500 will be reimbursed as a one-off payment. If a child is registered in more than one school, additional registration fees will not be reimbursed. A registration fee is des lunettes paid once only per child in disadvantages of essay, each level of education (primary and secondary). An admission fee (where applied as a separate invoiced amount) up to a maximum of Dhs 2,000 will be reimbursed as a one-off payment. If an admission fee is part of an advance payment of term fee, it is regarded as being part of tuition fees and is included in the overall Education Support Allowance for tuition fees. An admission fee is gratuitement paid once only per child in each level of education (primary and secondary). Are my family members eligible for research papers papers medical cover if they do not reside in Dubai? If you are a Category A staff member, your eligible dependents not residing in the UAE are covered for des lunettes gratuitement in-patient treatment worldwide. They are covered for outpatient treatment only in the UAE. They are covered for emergency outpatient treatment only in countries other than their country of domicile. All non-emergency treatment needs prior approval from the thesis, Medical Costs Manager.

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Einthoven dissertation prizes 2016. The dissertation prize is named after Willem Einthoven who was a pioneer in cardiovascular medicine and recorded a human ECG for the first time in 1902, for which he was awarded with the Nobel prize in 1924 [ 1 ]. This yearly event is an initiative of the gratuitement, Netherlands Heart Institute (NHI) and the Netherlands Society of Cardiology (NVVC) to thesis, select the best three cardiovascular theses published in the year 2016. The jury received a total of 19 PhD dissertations for selection. The ranking of the theses was based upon a combination of parameters that included the curriculum vitae of the candidate, the des lunettes en ligne, scientific originality of the PhD thesis as well as its relevance for the cardiovascular field. Moreover, several objective bibliometric parameters were used that included the number of c3 coursework solutions, articles in des lunettes en ligne gratuitement citation index journals, both in writing PubMed and the Web of Science (WOS), the number of citations in WOS, the Hirsch index and finally the contribution of the candidate as a first author. Based upon this evaluation the jury elected the following nominees: Lourens Robbers, Romy Franken and des lunettes Michiel de Graaf. The members of the history, jury were Prof. P.A. Doevendans and Prof. D.J.

Duncker (Netherlands Heart Institute), Prof. B.J.M. Mulder (NVVC), Prof. J.W. Deckers (Director CVOI) and Prof. M.J. Des Lunettes Gratuitement. Schalij (President Concilium Cardiologicum). The three candidates presented their PhD theses at the annual spring congress of the NVVC held at De Leeuwenhorst in Noordwijkerhout on 6–7 April 2017. We congratulate the laureates for their excellent scientific work and their presentations during the meeting. Defining microvascular injury in acute myocardial infarction and response after cell therapy using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Although mortality rates for thesis acute myocardial infarction have decreased over the years, the number of patients suffering from des lunettes gratuitement heart failure after myocardial infarction is increasing.

Early recognition of thesis on metamaterial, patients at risk for heart failure is necessary to optimise treatment. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows the essayer des lunettes en ligne gratuitement, accurate depiction of cardiac morphology, function, perfusion and tissue composition. Although CMR has already established itself as a valuable tool in clinical practice, new CMR techniques may provide additional information on the severity of the injury and expected recovery. In the first part of this thesis, novel CMR techniques were addressed to disadvantages of essay writing, further evaluate the composition of the myocardium after PCI-treated myocardial infarction. A few days after myocardial infarction, T1 and gratuitement T2* values are increased in the infarcted myocardium. However, if microvascular injury (MVI) was present, T1 and T2* values significantly decreased in the infarcted area, showing that T1 and T2* values need to be interpreted carefully in the presence of MVI. Additionally, we further investigated the essays, tissue composition of areas with MVI by using a porcine model of reperfused myocardial infarction. Seven days after inducing a myocardial infarction by temporary coronary artery occlusion, CMR with T2-weighted imaging and late gadolinium enhancement imaging was performed, directly followed by histological examination of the myocardium. This showed that CMR-defined areas of MVI contain extensive necrosis with extravasation of erythrocytes, and complete destruction of the en ligne, vasculature, while the surrounding contrast-enhanced area showed necrosis with intact microvessels containing microthrombi.

The new insight into the relation of MVI, T2-defined haemorrhage and the histological findings shows that the phenomenon of MVI may not be caused by microvascular thrombotic ‘obstruction’ alone and allows further research into strategies aiming to preserve the microvasculature to attenuate damage. Thirdly, CMR showed us that LGE-defined infarcted tissue heterogeneity can help in predicting the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) on numerical, 24-hour Holter monitoring 1 month after the infarction. Larger proportions of grey zone, or penumbra, were associated with an increased risk of VTs, supporting the theory that infarct heterogeneity may facilitate VT development. As risk stratification for essayer des lunettes en ligne effective prophylactic ICD implantation remains debated, further studies into the infarct composition may help in identifying the patients who might benefit from ICD therapy. The second part of of essay writing, this thesis assessed the effects of intracoronary cell therapy after myocardial infarction on perfusion recovery and long-term functional recovery. In the first days after the infarction, perfusion differed between the infarcted myocardium and remote, unaffected myocardium. These regional differences persisted after 4 months and essayer en ligne no difference in perfusion recovery was found for of essay writing any treatment group in any of the regions. At long-term follow-up, no additional functional improvement was found from en ligne gratuitement cell therapy on left ventricle function, suggesting that cell therapy does not provide benefit in its current form as an adjuvant treatment strategy after myocardial infarction. In conclusion, the thesis shows the versatility of CMR and its necessity for essays on picasso art daily cardiology practice.

In the future, it may provide us with new tools to gratuitement, identify patients with more severe myocardial damage due to infarct-related haemorrhage, and patients with increased risk of developing arrhythmias after infarction. Further assessment of infarct tissue characteristics and the relation with functional recovery may provide more tailored therapy for patients after myocardial infarction. Marfan syndrome: getting to the root of the problem. In this thesis we have tried to get to the root of the problem of the Marfan syndrome (MFS). We obtained more insight into the diagnosis, prognosis and markers of aortic disease, we explored novel treatment strategies to prevent aortic complications and obtained more knowledge about the importance of solutions, genetics in MFS. Currently, the diagnosis of MFS is established by the revised Ghent criteria, which includes the family history, an essayer des lunettes, FBN1 mutation, aortic dilation (Z-score ? 2), aortic dissection, ectopia lentis and a list of systemic features. However, we have shown that these criteria do not apply to populations other than Caucasian, resulting in underdiagnosis of MFS. Aortic dissection impacts the lifespan of MFS patients negatively. Previously, we identified MFS patients at on eros by robert bridges, risk for essayer type B aortic dissection using the aortic diameter, prior aortic root surgery, aortic distensibility and an aortic dilation rate above 0.5 mm/year. We have now added two novel predictors for aortic complications. An increase in on research papers the tortuosity index of the aorta as well as an elevated plasma TGF-? level lead to an increased aortic dilation rate and des lunettes en ligne gratuitement an increased risk for aortic dissection.

After the introduction of prophylactic aortic root replacements, the life expectancy has been increased tremendously. On Metamaterial. However, despite surgery, MFS patients still have an increased risk of premature death by essayer des lunettes aortic dissection. In order to reduce the essays, aortic dilation rate and subsequently delay the need for prophylactic aortic root surgery, patients are pharmacologically treated with ??blockers, which reduce aortic wall stress. Essayer Des Lunettes Gratuitement. However, ??blockers do not completely prevent aortic complications, thus novel treatment strategies are still necessary. On Research. We have shown increased vascular inflammation in the aortic root of adult MFS mice, which is significantly reduced by treatment with losartan or anti-inflammatory drugs.

However, besides losartan, anti-inflammatory agents did not reduce the en ligne, aortic dilation rate in MFS mice. In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we confirmed the solutions, beneficial effects of losartan treatment on aortic root dilation rate in adults with MFS. Furthermore, we could demonstrate a reduction in aortic dilation rate of the aortic arch in the subgroup of patients with a history of aortic root surgery. We found large variability in individual aortic root dilation rates upon losartan treatment. Essayer. This and other highly variable phenotypic appearances are a result of the research papers on research, large number of different FBN1 mutations. After reviewing the universally available FBN1 mutation database, we are now able to classify mutation in the FBN1 gene based on their actions at the DNA level into less fibrillin-1 protein (haploinsufficiency (HI)) or less functioning (mutated) fibrillin-1 protein (dominant negative (DN)) incorporated in the aortic wall. We have found and gratuitement confirmed that patients with an HI- FBN1 mutation are at writing, increased risk for aortic dissection and cardiovascular mortality, compared with patients with a DN- FBN1 mutation. Furthermore, a difference in therapeutic response was shown.

Losartan significantly reduces the aortic root dilation rate in des lunettes MFS patients with an HI- FBN1 mutation, whereas only a modest insignificant reduction is found in those with a DN- FBN1 mutation, which highlights the research papers papers, importance of genetics in MFS. Computed tomography coronary angiography: from quantification of coronary atherosclerosis to risk stratification of patients. In the past 10 years coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has emerged as a widely used non-invasive imaging test for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD); its clinical applicability is widely incorporated in the current guidelines. Especially the high sensitivity ( 98%) allows for accurate rule-out of disease in patients with suspected CAD. In the current literature, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the clinical and prognostic relevance of coronary plaque burden in addition to the presence of obstructive CAD. Essayer Des Lunettes En Ligne. Using coronary CTA several features of coronary atherosclerosis can be identified; besides the evaluation of luminal narrowing, the extent, composition and location of CAD can be assessed.

Using novel software algorithms these dimensional and research papers on research compositional parameters can be (automatically) quantified. The aim of this thesis was to essayer des lunettes, explore the essays, value of coronary CTA in clinical practice, specifically targeting the feasibility of quantitative assessment of coronary atherosclerosis on CTA (QCT) and the clinical applicability of quantitative parameters of atherosclerosis. First, the ability of essayer des lunettes, QCT to quantify coronary plaque composition was assessed. QCT-derived parameters were compared with invasive measurement derived from of essay writing intravascular ultrasound virtual histology. Both dimensional and compositional parameters were well correlated between the two modalities. Essayer En Ligne Gratuitement. Thus, automatic characterisation of coronary atherosclerosis with QCT is feasible and accurate. Second, the c3 coursework solutions, value of en ligne gratuitement, QCT for risk stratification of patients was established. For this purpose all QCT-derived detailed data on the location, severity and composition of atherosclerosis were incorporated in on research a single score. After more than 2 years follow-up of patients with stable chest pain, the CTA risk score was significantly higher in patients who experienced a major adverse cardiac event (MACE).

More importantly, all MACE occurred in patients with a high CTA risk score. It seems this CTA risk score allows accurate risk stratification of essayer gratuitement, patients with suspected CAD. A drawback of coronary CTA is the fact that the research on research, haemodynamic significance of essayer gratuitement, a lesion cannot be evaluated. In this thesis it was demonstrated that quantitative parameters provided better correlation with the presence of myocardial ischaemia on myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT as compared with current visual assessment of coronary CTA. Using coronary CTA to assess changes over time in c3 coursework numerical solutions coronary atherosclerosis can be evaluated. For clinical practice, disease progression or regression is an important variable which could be used to evaluate the efficacy of medical therapy, but also provide more detailed insight into the natural history of des lunettes en ligne, coronary atherosclerosis. In the coming years, QCT will play in thesis pivotal role in the quantification of disease progression. Additionally, the essayer gratuitement, clinical value of coronary CTA in the specific setting of essays history in canada, high-risk diabetic patients without chest pain syndrome was established.

With regards to the specific setting of essayer gratuitement, high-risk diabetic patients without chest pain, several conclusions can be derived from numerical this thesis. First, if treated with optimal medical therapy, very few patients present with progression of myocardial ischaemia. Second, the prognosis of these patients is good; the overall long-term event rate is limited. Especially diabetic patients without CAD on coronary CTA have an essayer des lunettes, excellent prognosis. Even though the essays on picasso art, prognostic value of CTA was demonstrated in this thesis, it is unclear if screening using cardiac imaging influences the outcome of these patients. Additionally, cardiac CTA or CAC score could help tailor medical therapy in this challenging patient population.

Michiel de Graaf won the first prize, Romy Franken the second prize and Lourens Robbers the third prize. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the en ligne, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in on picasso any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to essayer des lunettes gratuitement, the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. J. J. Piek 1 Email author 1. Department of c3 coursework, Cardiology Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam The Netherlands. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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